transformed by the renewing of your mind." Romans 12:2a
PREPARED BY: Dr. Scott S. Kinnes, Office W-08, ext 3362
COURSE: BIOL-220 General Microbiology
COURSE A study of the fundamental principles and techniques of microbiology
CONTENT: through lecture and laboratory experience.
COURSE To develop an understanding of microorganisms and their impact on
OBJECTIVE: human life while gaining expertise in practical microbiological techniques.
REQUIRED Text: Fundamentals of Microbiology, I.E. Alcamo, 1994
READING: Manual: Microbiology in Practice, L. Beishir, 1996
Tests: Lecture: 4 lecture tests = 40%
Final Exam = 15%
Lab 3 lab practicals = 20%
Disease Profile: 5%
Course philosophy material
Please note the following:
a. No students will receive a "C" or better course grade without achieving at least a 70% average on the four lecture tests, final exam and three lab practicals. Unknown, paper, etc. cannot increase an "exam" average of less than 70%
b. Each lecture test and lab practical will cover only material since the last test. However, essay questions on lecture tests may require, include or be based upon past knowledge.
2. Other requirements- See individual attached sheets for each item.
3. All grading - The following scale applies:
Grading Scale: 'A' = 100-92 C' = 77.9-72
'A-' = 91.9-90 'C-' = 71.9-70
'B+' = 89.9-88 'D+' = 69.9-68
'B' = 87.9-82 'D' = 67.9-62
'B-' = 81.9-80 'D-' = 61.9-60
'C+' = 79.9-78 'F' = 59.9-0
4. All students receicing a "D" or "F" on any test must meet with the professor within two weeks of that test. Students must bring their test with them. Failure to meet will lower the final course grade five points.
This course is designed to teach you several things. In no particular order they are: biology, how to survive life after APU, and how to integrate your Christian faith with virtually everything you do. Granted, that may seem like a big statement, so let me explain what I mean.
MICROBIOLOGY: Hopefully, since this is a course entitled "General Microbiology" you will learn something about that subject through taking this course! This will be done through the lectures, the labs, the quizzes and exams and the papers. This aspect of the course is to be a two-way street and will require work on your part that goes beyond the tests and papers. You will be expected to read the material prior to the lecture or lab and to review those sections which you still do not understand after class. I stand ready, willing and able to help you through any dificulties that you may encounter but only after you have at least made an effort to understand it on your own. This is particularly important in lab as I will not answer foolish questions that indicate that you have not previously read the exercises.
LIFE AFTER APU: More importantly, perhaps, this course, like college in general, is designed to teach you how to survive after college. This includes life in graduate school, whatever job you may get and life in general. Lord willing, most of you are aware that college is a very sheltered environment but, unfortunately, many students experience a rude awakening when they graduate. I intend for this course to be like life--difficult but not impossible. The rules and regulations under which this course will operate will hopefully prepare you for life in the real world. These are listed below and I advise you to read them periodically as ignorance will be no excuse for failing to comply with them. The policies on class attendance, tardiness, late papers, make-up exams, timed tests, etc. are all an integral part of this course and will be followed for all but the most extreme cases. As in all of this, I do not want you to think that you have entered a Marine boot camp or something. I realize that there are often events in your lives that prevent you from meeting these requirements and I want you to know that I am very sensitive to these occurrences. Therefore, if you believe that you have a legitimate excuse, please come to me and bring it to my attention.
1. Tests: This will begin with the quizzes, exams and practicals themselves.Since life is rarely a question of multiple choice, fill in the blank, etc. types of questions, on my tests will be only partially made up of these types of questions. In life you will constantly be faced with having to put together various things you know to arrive at an answer. You will then have to formulate that answer into a cohesive, comprehensible form that can be expressed to others. Therefore, my tests will always include at least one essay question in which you will be required to put down in correct form a paragraph that will demonstrate your knowledge of the subject under discussion. If you omit important information or do not put the answer down in an essay format, you will lose points. Often, however, the questions will be short answers (usually lists of some type, often with short elaborations) or diagrams of something we have discussed and there will always be a vocabulary question with a list of important words for which you must furnish a short sentence type answer that completely defines the words as we discussed them.
2. Attendance: School policy is that "excessive absences will affect (sic) the student's final grade" (Faculty Handbook). As I have noticed, a definite correlation between grades and attendance I will lower your final grade for excessive absences. The only way that you are going to develop the habit of pushing yourself to do what you need to do is to be held accountable for your actions. Therefore, the first three lecture absences will be ignored. After that, however, each absence will lower your final grade by four points so that an extra three absences will lower your grade one full letter. In lab, any unexcused absence will result in a drop of 10 points in your final lab grade. You are also responsible for attending the entire lab so do not make plans to leave early. I will take attendance at the end of lab and if you are not present at that time, you will be counted absent.
It is your responsibility to explain your absences and to obtain all information presented during your absence. Excused absences include illnesses verified by a doctor's note, occasional absence due to extra-curricular activities and a few others as determined by me. An attendance sheet will be passed around during class for you to sign your name if you are present. Anyone caught signing another person's name will receive an "F" for the course.
3. Tardies: Just as important as attending class is coming on time; again this is also important in real life. Three tardies will constitute an unexcused absence. If you are tardy be sure to see me after class to be sure that you are not counted absent. Failure to do so by the end of the period will result in an unexcused absence!!
4. Make-up Exams: Make-up exams will be given only in very special circumstances such as illness, verified by a doctor. Such things as leaving early for a break, not having time to study, etc. will not be allowed and you will get a zero for that grade. In any case, please try and contact me or my secretary (ext. 3840) beforehand and you must contact me within a week of missing any test to explain why you missed it. Failure to do so will prevent you from being able to take a make-up exam. All make-up tests will be given on Monday, April 20. No early exams, quizzes, etc. will be allowed so it is your responsibility to make arrangements with me to take the test on that day, at least a week in advance. Failure to do so will result in your receiving a zero for that grade.
5. Late Papers, etc.: NO late papers, projects, etc. will be accepted unless they are handed in posthumously. The due date will be given far in advance so you will have plenty of time to prepare for it. The material is due during that day's lecture or lab period, depending on what it relates to, and not just prior to midnight of that day! No early presentations will be allowed.
6. Timed Tests: The majority of the tests that you will have to take throughout your life will be timed in some manner. If you have not learned to gauge your time and move along at the correct pace, you will not pass these tests. To help you develop these skills all tests in this course will be timed. You will have a certain amount of time to take each test and at the end of that time all papers will be collected. It is, therefore, very important that you are not late on test days. If you have a disability of some type that prevents you from handling material at a normal rate, then please see me so that special arrangements can be made.
7. Cheating: If you are caught cheating on a test/paper, you will receive a zero for that test/paper. If you are caught cheating on a second test/paper, you will receive an "F" in the course. All cases of cheating will be reported to the Dean of Students. If you are suspected of cheating, I reserve the right to have you take another test on that material. If you are in doubt of what constitutes cheating, please refer to the University's Student Handbook.
8. Learning Enrichment Center: In an effort to assist students having difficulty in classes, the University has established an excellent Learning Enrichment Center which has become a model for Southern California schools. It is available to assist you with general and specific study programs.
Any student receiving a "D" or "F" on any of the first three lecture tests can increast that grade by seeking individual or group tutoring assistance. Students receiving four hours of tutoring bewfore the next test will have the original grade raised five points or half the difference between the two grades, whichever is higher. The LEC's attendance records are all that will be accepted.
FAITH AND LIFE: Finally, both by my example and the content of the course, I would like to help you learn that all aspects of your life can and must be brought under the Lordship of Jesus Christ. Too often we relegate God to those aspects of our lives that seem to have some obvious relation to Him, i.e., church activities, religion courses, etc. However, it is very important that God be involved and considered in all that you are involved in. Currently the Lord has called each of you to be students in this course and that must be your primary task over the next few weeks. God has also called you to be the best students you can possibly be and that means putting a lot of energy and effort into this course. I will attempt to teach you how God can be relevant to something that might seem as "unChristian" as microbiology throughout the course even though the author of the texts we'll be using is a strict evolutionist. You, however, must also do your part in being a responsible Christian student.
MICROBIOLOGY LECTURE SCHEDULE
DATE DAY CHAPTER TOPIC
Jan. 12 M Course Introduction 14 W 1 History
16 F 2,5 Biochemistry
19 M HOLIDAY
21 W 2,5 Biochemistry
23 F 4 Cell Structure
26 M 4 Growth
28 W 4 Environ. Effects
30 F 4 Environ. Effects
Feb. 2 M Test 1
4 W 21 Physical Controls 6 F 22,23 Chemical Controls 9 M 6 Genetics
11 W 6 Genetics 13 F PRESIDENTS HOLIDAY
16 M 17 Normal Flora 18 W 17 Epidemiology
20 F 17 Infection
23 M 14 Fungi Diseases
25 W COMMON DAY OF LEARNING
27 F TEST 2
Mar. 2 M 15 Protozoans
4 W 15 Protozoan Diseases
6 F 16 Multicells
9 M 16 Multicell Diseases
11 W 7 Bacterial Diseases
13 F 8 Bacterial Diseases
16 M 9 Bacterial Diseases
18 W 10 Bacterial Diseases
20 F 10 Bacterial Diseases (end of test 3)
LAST DAY TO WITHDRAW
23 M TEST 3
25 W 11 Viruses
27 F 12 Viral Diseases
30 M 12,13 Viral Diseases
Apr. 1 W 13 Viral Diseases
3 F 18 Nonspecific Resistance
6 M EASTER BREAK
13 M 18 Nonspecific Resistance
15 W 18,19 Immunology
17 F 18,19 Immunology
20 M TEST 4 (from viruses)
22 W 18,19 Immunology
24 F 20 Immune Disorders
FINAL EXAM WILL BE ON WEDNESDAY, APRIL 29, 7:30 A.M.
MICROBIOLOGY LAB SCHEDULE
NOTE: Students are expected to always attend the same lab section
Bold dates indicate no lab on that day.
MONTH DATE DAY EXERCISE TOPIC
JAN 14 W 2,3 MEDIA PREPARATION
16 F 4,5,6 SCOPES AND MICROS
21 W 7-11 ASEPTIC TECHNIQUES
23 F 12,13 STREAKING
28 W 21,22,23 STAINING
30 F 25 ACID-FAST STAIN
FEB 4 W 28 OXYGEN NEEDS
6 F 31,32 CHEMICAL CONTROL
11 W 29,30 TEMP/UV EFFECTS
13 F HOLIDAY NO LAB
18 W LAB PRACTICAL I
20 F 33-39 UNKNOWNS
25 W COMMONDAY OF LEARNING - NO LAB
27 F 33-39 UNKNOWNS
MAR 4 W 33-39 UNKNOWNS
6 F 33-39 UNKNOWNS
11 W 15,16 FUNGI
13 F 17,18 PROTOZOANS
18 W LAB PRACTICAL II
20 F 19,20 MULTICELLULARS
25 W 49,54 DIGESTIVE, URINARY TRACT
27 F 50 STAPHYLOCOCCUS
APRIL 1 W 51,52 STREPTOCOCCUS
3 F 53,55 ORAL CAVITY
8 W EASTER BREAK
10 F " " " "
15 W 42,43 MILK AND FOOD
17 F IMMUNOLOGY
22 W 45 AMES TEST
24 F LAB PRACTICAL III
1. No food or drinks in the lab.
2. No bare feet.
3. Label all test tubes, petri dishes, etc. with the following information
Your name Media
a. Use white tape and ball point pen on glass, wax pencil on plastic.
b. Remove all labels when finished.
4. Place all glassware, cultures, pipettes, etc. in the appropriate area for
autoclaving. Dispose of nothing into the lab trash cans except regular paper
5. No horseplay in lab.
6. Keep desk top clean of all extra material.
7. Wash down desktop with 10% Clorox before and after lab.
8. Wash hands after lab.
9. Report any reagent or culture spills to me immediately.
10. Use test tube holders, tongs or asbestos gloves to handle hot glassware.
Note: Hot glass looks just like cold glass.
11. Wash out your table cloth thoroughly after lab.
12. Wear the lab coat provided at all times.
13. All long hair must be worn back in a manner to prevent contamination, etc.
14. Read labs prior to coming to class.
15. Take notes: Record dates, times, media, organisms, incubation temperatures, etc. Complete your lab reports immediately after completing the lab. Neatness counts!!!
16. Keep track of the various experiments--note when you need to check or return to certain cultures.
1. 10% of your grade will be based upon your ability to identify an unknown bacterium correctly, by performing all the tests discussed in this series of labs.
2. As part of this lab experience you must develop, and turn in, a chart of identifying characteristics for each of the microorganisms listed below, which you have compiled on your own.
3. After you have completed your chart, run all your tests and successfully guessed your unknown, you must write up a one-page, typed, double-spaced explanation of why your test results led you to your conclusion.
4. Grading will be done on a minimal basis for the chart and key (5% each for unknown ID) while your ability to identify the unknown on your first try will constitute the majority of the grade. Each unsuccessful attempt to identify the microorganism will lower your grade 10%.
5. Due dates: Chart March 6
(According to Final Unknown ID March 13
your lab) Write-up March 20
6. I will assist you at three points:
a. When you do your gram stain, I will tell you if your stain and shape are correct.
b. When you do each test, I will help you determine if your test result is positive, negative, etc. I will not tell you if that result is correct for your unknown.
c. When you have completed all the tests, have entered them on your completed chart and have narrowed your unknown to two or three possibilities, I will advise you on which tests should be repeated.
1. 10% of your grade will be based on a 2-3 page paper on an article of interest to your appropriate to this course. The article must be approved by me and no duplicates will be allowed.
2. The paper is to completely "review" the article in your own words. You must include your critique articles connection to class and reason for chosing it. A copy of the article must be included with the final paper.
a. 2-3 pages
b. Double spaced
c. Correctly referenced, if needed.
4. Your grade will be based upon:
a. College-level composition/grammar, spelling, neatness and length (10% @)
b. Bibliography and citations, (10%)
c. Content (50%)
5. Remember NO late papers will be accepted.
6. Due Dates: Article selected: Jan. 26
Paper due: March 11
NOTE: TWO COPIES OF YOUR PAPER MUST BE TURNED IN.
THE SECOND COPY IS FOR MY ARCHIVES.
SPEAKER ________________________ DATE __________________
TOPIC __________________________ GRADE _________________
POINTS POSSIBLE POINTS EARNED
A. Introduction (Preview) 5 ______________
B. Body 10 ______________
C. Conclusion (Review) 5 ______________
D. Logical development 5 ______________
E. Clarity 5 ______________
F. Apparent knowledge/
understanding of topic 5 ______________
G. Length (Time: _______) 10 ______________
H. Ability to answer questions 5 ______________
A. Posture/Poise 5 ______________
B. Use of notes not obvious 5 ______________
C. Eye contact with audience 5 ______________
D. Use of fillers (ahs, ums, etc.) 5 ______________
III. VISUAL AIDS
Type(s): Slides, overheads, chalk board, handouts, props, other (Circle ones used) _________
A. Visual clarity 5 ______________
B. Supports presentation 5 ______________
C. Relevance 5 ______________
D. Evidence of preparation 5 ______________
A Originality/Style 5 ______________
B. Overall impact 5 ______________
TOTAL 100 ______________
1. 5% of your grade will be based upon your researching and presenting information on an assigned disease.
2. Each profile is to include:
History, importance of diseases
Method of transmission
Lifecycle and/or progression in host
3. Each presentation is to be 5-10 minutes in length.
4. Material should come primarily from your text. This is not meant to be an exhaustive research presentation. A copy of your notes must be provided to professor and your colleagues one day prior to your planned presentation date.
5. Grading will be based upon the attached sheet and being prepared on time.
NOTE: Once diseases are assigned, you must be prepared to present your's anytime within one class meeting before or after the scheduled date.
6. Students failing to appear on presentation date without a verified acceptable excuse will receive a "O" on that profile, and will not be allowed to make up the grade.
7. Slides of many of these diseases will be available. Check with me. Failure to use them will lower your grade.
How to see them
Where they came from
What caused diseases
life from life
Berkeley and Phytophthora infestans
Koch and Bacillus anthracis
Isolate, culture, identify
Infect healthy host, it gets sick
Reisolate, reculture, reidentify
Where in prokaryotes?
Proteins: see Genetics section
see Genetics section
Carbohydrates and fats
Function of cell wall
Gram positive vs. Gram negative
Comparison with eukaryotic flagellum
Growth in multicellular organisms
Growth in unicellular organisms
Limits to Growth:
Growth factor analogs
Disinfectants and Antiseptics
Antimetabolites/ Growth Factor Analogs
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic
Codon/Amino Acid Key
CHANGING THE GENOME
Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes
MUTATIONS CHANGING THE GENOME
Wild type vs. Mutant
Mutagenesis vs. Carcinogenesis
RECOMBINATIONS CHANGING THE GENOME
Areas to be covered
Suitability as habitat
Trachea and Bronchus
Definition: Transmission of infectious diseases in populations
Part of lifecycle?
hosts vs carriers
Relation to affected body part
Occurance in Population
Pathogen, et al.
Host, et al.
Clinical Stages of Disease
Types of Infectious Diseases
Types of Infectious Diseases II
Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton
Athletes foot, groin itch, ringworm
Associated with water
Sporaozoan/Apicomplexanon-motile, spore forming, complex cycles
Pneumocystosis- PCPPneumocystis carinii
Complex lifecyclesintermediate host
NEMATHELMINTHES: Roundworms I
Roundworm diseaseAscaris lumbricoides
Beef TapewormTaenia saginata
Pork TapewormTaenia solium
Fish TapewormDiphyllobothrium latum
Intestinal flukeFasciolopsis buski
Liver flukeFasciola helatica
Chinese liver flukeClonorchis sinensis
Blood flukeSchistosoma mansoni
Food and Waterborne
Soil and Arthropodborne
Contact and Endogenous
Meningococcal meningitisNeisseria meningitidis
Strep throatStreptococcus pyogenes
Pneumoccal pneumoniaStreptococcus pneumoniae
Food and Waterborne
Staphylococcal Food PoisoningStaphylococcus aureus
Clostridial Food PoisoningClostridium perfringens
SalmonellosisSalmonella typhimurium; S. enteritidis
Typhoid FeverSalmonella typhii
Bacteria DysenteryShigella spps.
Soil and Arthropodborne
Gas GangreneClostridium perfringens
C. septicum; C. novyi
Bubonic PlagueYersinia pestis
Lyme DiseaseBorrelia burgdorferi
Rocky Mountain Spotted FeverRickettsia rickettsii
Epidemic TyphusRickettsia prowasekii
Contact and Endogenous
Chlamydia/Nongonococcal UrethritisChlamydia trachomatis
Toxic Shock SyndromeStaphylococcus aureus
Any agent of disease
Obligate intracellular parasites
Non-living infectious units
Virulent vs. Temperate
Bacteriophages vs. Animal Viruses
Host modificationmodify binding sites
modify restriction enzymes
modify own DNA
Influenzadouble strand RNA
Chicken Poxdouble stranded DNA
Measlessingle stranded RNA
Mumpssingle stranded RNA
Small Poxdouble stranded DNA
German Measlessingle stranded RNA
Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN)neutrophil
Cell-mediated Immunity (CMI)
Antibody-mediated Immunity (AMI)
Complete vs. Incomplete (Haptens)
helper T cells
cytotoxic T cells
Natural Killer Cells
Cell Mediated Immunity
Primary and Secondary Responses
Type I- Anaphylactic Hypersensitivity
Type II- Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity
Type III- Immune Complex Hypersensitivity
Type IV- Cellular Hypersensitivity
Disorders- Immune Deficiencies