transformed by the renewing of your mind." Romans 12:2a
PREPARED BY: Dr. Scott S. Kinnes, Office W-08, ext. 3362. Set office hours - Th 1:30-3:30 pm. Other office hours by appointments.
COURSE: 51-112 General Biology II
COURSE CONTENT: A continuation of General Biology I. Topics covered include
evolution, ecology, plant biology and a survey of the five kingdoms of life.
COURSE OBJECTIVE: To prepare the major for upper level biology courses, the GRE and the MCAT by creating a firm foundation in biology and to begin training students in basic scientific methodologies and skills.
Text: Biology, McFadden and Keeton, 1995
Lab Manual: Biology Laboratory Manual, S. Mader, 1996
Supplemental: Biology Through the Eyes of Faith, R. Wright, 1989
A Short Guide to Writing About Biology, Pechenik, 1997
A Life Science Lexicon, W. N. Marchurk, 1992
Provided: Department of Biology and Chemistry Student Handbook, Kinnes, 1997
Dr. K's Handy Dandy Guide to Writing, Kinnes, 1997
SUGGESTED READING: Study Guide to Accompany Biology Biological Science, McFadden, 1993
1. Graded Material
A. Tests 4 Lecture Tests = 32%
1 Final Exam = 15%
2 Lab Practicals = 20%
Each lecture test and lab practical will cover only the new material since the last test. The final exam will be comprehensive. However, essay questions on lecture tests may require, include or be based upon past knowledge.
B. Lab Work 10%
C. Vocabulary Quizzes 5%
D. Lab Project 18%
2. Non-Graded Material
(1) All students must meet with the professor for a general conference sometime before February 28, 1997. Failure to do so will lower the course grade five points.
(2) Any student receiving a grade below 70% on any test must meet with the
professor within two weeks of that test. Students will be expected to bring their test with them. Failure to do so will lower the course grade five points.
All students will be expected to attend at least one of the 'to be arranged' lunches with the professor. Failure to do so will lower the course grade five points.
3. Minimum Grade Expectation
A. No student will receive a "C" or better course grade without achieving at
least a 70% average on the four lecture tests, one final exam and the two lab practicals. Vocabulary quizzes, projects and lab work cannot increase an "exam" average of less than 70%.
B. Any student receiving a "D" or "F" will not be allowed to move on to the next level of courses in the biology sequence without further basic science preparation.
4. Other Requirements - see individual attached sheets for details.
5. All grading - the grading scale is as follows:
Grading Scale: 'A' = 100-92
'A-' = 91.9-90
'B+' = 89.9-88
'B' = 87.9-82
'B-' = 81.9-80
'C+' = 79.9-78
'C' = 77.9-72
'C-' = 71.9-70
'D+' = 69.9-68
'D' = 67.9-62
'D-' = 61.9-60
'F' = 59.9-0
This course is designed to teach you several things. In no particular order they are: biology, how to survive life after APU, and how to integrate your Christian faith with virtually everything you do. Granted, that may seem like a big statement, so let me explain what I mean.
GENERAL BIOLOGY: Hopefully, since this is a course entitled "General Biology II", you will learn something about that subject through taking this course! This will be done through the lectures, the labs, the quizzes and exams and the project. This aspect of the course is to be a two-way street and will require work on your part that goes beyond the tests and papers. You will be expected to read the material prior to lecture or lab and to review those sections which you still do not understand after class. I stand ready, willing and able to help you through any difficulties that you may encounter but only after you have at least made an effort to understand it on your own. This is particularly important in lab.
LIFE AFTER APU: More importantly, perhaps, this course, like college in general, is designed to teach you how to survive after college. This includes life in graduate school, whatever job you may get and life in general.
1. Tests: This will begin with the quizzes, exams and practicals themselves.
In lecture most tests will be 40-60% "scantron"-type questions. However, tests will usually include essay type questions in which the questions will require you to put down in correct form a paragraph that will demonstrate your knowledge of the subject under discussion. If you omit important information, do not put the answer down in an essay format or just regurgitate everything on the subject without applying it to the question, or you will lose points. Often, however, the questions will be short answers (usually lists of some type, often with short elaboration's), diagrams of something we have discussed or a vocabulary question with a list of important words for which you must furnish a short sentence type answer that completely defines the words as we discussed them.
2. Attendance: School policy is that "excessive absences will affect (sic) the student's
final grade" (Faculty Handbook). As I have noticed a definite correlation between grades and attendance, I will lower your final grade for excessive absences. The first three lecture absences will be ignored. After that, however, each absence will lower your final grade by four points so that an extra three absences will lower your grade one full letter. In lab, youwill be allowed no unexcused absences. Any unexcused absence will result in a drop of 10 points in your final lab grade. You are also responsible for attending the entire lab so do not make plans to leave early. I will take attendance at the end of lab and if you are not present at that time, you will be counted absent.
It is your responsibility to explain your absences and to obtain all information presented during your absence. Excused absences include illnesses verified by a doctor's note and occasional absence due to approved extra-curricular activities. An attendance sheet will be passed around during class for you to sign your name if you are present. Anyone caught signing another person's name will receive an "F" for the course.
3. Tardies: Just as important as attending class is coming on time; again, this is important
in real life. Three tardies will constitute an unexcused absence. If you are tardy, be sure to see me after class to be sure that you are not counted absent. Failure to do so by the end of the period will result in an unexcused absence!!
4. Make-up Exams: Make-up exams will be given only in very special circumstances such as
illness, verified by a doctor. Such things as leaving early for a break, not having time to study, etc. will not be allowed and you will get a zero for that grade. In any case, please try and contact me or my secretary (ext. 3840) beforehand and you must contact me within a week of missing a test to explain your absence and get approval for a make-up exam. Failure to do so will prevent you from being able to take a make-up exam. In any case, all make-up tests will be given at the end of the semester on Monday, April 20. No early exams or quizzes will be allowed so it is your responsibility to make arrangements with me to take the test on that day, at least one week in advance. If you fail to do so, you will get a zero for that grade.
5. Late Papers, etc.: If you fail to turn in any paper, project, etc. on time, it will
still be accepted during the next seven days but your grade will be lowered ten points for each day it is late. Nothing will be accepted after a week past the due date. The material is due at the beginning of that day's lecture or lab period, depending on what it relates to.
6. Timed Tests: All tests in this course will be timed. You will have a certain
amount of time to take each test and at the end of that time all papers will be collected. It is, therefore, very important that you are not late on test days. If you have a disability of some type that prevents you from handling material at a normal rate, then please see me so that special arrangements can be made.
7. Cheating: If you are caught cheating on a test, you will receive a zero for that test.
If you are caught cheating on a second test, you will receive an "F" in the course. If you are suspected of cheating, I reserve the right to have you take another test on that material. One of the most frequent types of cheating at the college level is plagiarism which will be treated as any other type of cheating. If you are in doubt as to what constitutes plagiarism, please see me before writing any papers for this class or consult your APU student handbook. All such incidences will be reported to the Dean of Students.
8. Learning Enrichment Center: In an effort to assist students having difficulty in classes,
the University has established an excellent Learning Enrichment Center which has become a model for Southern California schools. It is available to assist you with general and specific study problems. In addition, the Media Center, located in the basement of the library, has videos,a laser disk and computer program that is useful in reviewing many aspects of this course.To encourage students to make use of this facility, any student receiving a "D" or "F" on any of the first three lecture tests can raise that test grade by attending four hours of tutoring (individual, or group). This four hours must occur prior to the next test. If this is done, the "D" or "F" grade will be raised by five points or by half the difference between the two tests, whichever is higher. Only the LEC's attendance records will be accepted so be sure your presence is recorded.
FAITH AND LIFE: Finally, both by my example and the content of the course, I would like to help you learn that all aspects of your life can and must be brought under the Lordship of Jesus Christ. Too often we relegate God to those aspects of our lives that seem to have some obvious relation to Him, (i.e., church activities, religion courses, etc.). However, it is very important that God be involved and considered in all the things in which you are involved. Currently the Lord has called each of you to be students and that must be your primary task over the next few months. God has also called you to be the best students you can possibly be and that means putting a lot of energy and effort into this course.
DAY DATE CHAPTER (WRIGHT) TOPIC
M JAN. 12 NONE COURSE INTRODUCTION
W 14 36 ORIGIN OF LIFE THEORIES
F 16 NONE GOD, DARWIN AND DINOSAURS
M 19 HOLIDAY
W 21 (5,6) CREATIONISM & EVOLUTION PARADIGMS
F 23 36, APPENDIX 3 GEOLOGICAL TIME SCALE
M 26 36 FOSSIL RECORD
W 28 31 EVOLUTIONARY MECHANISMS
F 30 31 NATURAL SELECTION AND SPECIATION
M FEB. 2 31, 32 ADAPTIVE RADIATION & MACROEVOLUTION
W 3 32 GRADUALISM, PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM
F 4 32 PHYLOGENY
M 9 TEST I
W 11 43 EVOLUTION OF PRIMATES
F 13 HOLIDAY
M 16 36, APPENDIX 4 TAXONOMY AND KINGDOMS
W 18 (9, 12) STEWARDSHIP ECOLOGY
F 20 33 ECOLOGY BASICS
M 23 33 POPULATION DYNAMICS
W 25 COMMON DAY OF LEARNING
F. 27 33 POPULATION GROWTH, REGULATION
M MAR. 2 33 COMMUNITY STRUCTURE, SUCCESSION
W 4 34 ENERGY FLOW, TROPHIC LEVELS
F 6 34 BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
M 9 TEST II
W 11 34 CLIMATOLOGY & GLOBAL IMPLICATIONS
F 13 34 ECOSYSTEMS & BIOMES
M 16 34 MAN'S IMPACT
W 18 15 PLANT INTRODUCTION
F 20 15 ROOT STRUCTURE
LAST DAY TO WITHDRAW
M 23 STEM STRUCTURE
W 25 STEM STRUCTURE
F 27 LEAF STRUCTURE
M 30 19 TEST III
W APR. 1 19, 22 WATER MOVEMENT
F 3 23, 24 PLANT GROWTH
M 7 EASTER BREAK
M 13 23 PLANT HORMONES
W 15 23 PLANT HORMONES
F 17 24 PHOTOPERIODISM
M 20 39 LOWER PLANT TAXONOMY
W 22 39 HIGHER PLANT TAXONOMY
F 24 TEST IV
FINAL EXAM: 9:40 a.m.,WEDNESDAY, APRIL 29, 1997
WEEK OF: EXERCISES TOPICS
JAN. 12 PECHENIK TEXT RESEARCH PROJECT
26 11, 12 HARDY WEINBERG THEORY
FEB. 2 34 ECOLOGY FIELD TRIP - BIOMES
9 None ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
16 33, 35 SYMBIOSIS, POLLUTION
23 14 (TEXT CH. 37, 38) MONERA AND PROTISTA
MAR.2 14 (TEXT CH. 40) LAB PRAC. I, FUNGI
9 15, 16 (TEXT CH. 39) PLANT VARIETY
16 20, 23 (TEXT CH. 39) PLANT STRUCTURE
23 21, 22 PLANT BEHAVIOR
30 17, 18, 19 (TEXT CH. 41) INVERTEBRATES
APR. 6 EASTER BREAK
13 19 (TEXT CH. 42) VERTEBRATES
20 LAB PRAC. II
ASSIGNMENT: 10% of your final grade will be based on your correctly completing each lab assignment, writing up your results and discussion sectionsand other assignments, quizzes, etc.
PURPOSE: To develop lab skills, the ability to carefully follow instructions and conduct experiments and to write-up your results correctly.
REQUIREMENTS: Complete each experiment/exercise correctly and write-up each exercise according to the individual exercise requirements or instructions provided.
GRADING: Based on your correctly, not necessarily successfully, completing each exercise and the quality and completeness of your write-ups.
DUE DATES: The next week lab period after an exercise. The manual will be
examined in detail and graded on April 22th.
WARNING: Any student seen copying material from another student will
receive a 'O' on this portion of the course grade!!
ASSIGNMENT: 5% of your final grade will be based upon your preparing for and taking quizzes from selected sections of the A Life Science Lexicon.
PURPOSE: To develop a working scientific vocabulary to serve as a foundation for this and future courses.
REQUIREMENTS: Weekly quizzes, according to the following schedule, on various sections of your life science lexicon.
GRADING: Two quizzes will be dropped, either missed ones or your lowest ones. Therefore, no makeup quizzes or early quizzes will be allowed.
Your grade will be based on an average from your best eleven quizzes.
SCHEDULE: Quizzes will be held at the beginning of the first day of lecture of the following weeks. Failure to be present at that time will result in a zero for that quiz.
Jan. 19 Root/Prefix/Suffix A
26 Root/Prefix/Suffix B,C
Feb. 2 Root/Prefix/Suffix D,E,F
9 Root/Prefix/Suffix G,H,I
16 Root/Prefix/Suffix J,K,L,M
23 Root/Prefix/Suffix N,O
Mar. 2 Root/Prefix/Suffix P
9 Root/Prefix/Suffix Q,R,S
16 Root/Prefix/Suffix T,U,V,X,Y,Z
Apr. 30 Colors and Sizes
13 Direction and position
20 Number and quantity
NOTE: Each quiz will have a list of "words" of which you will choose any ten to define.
ASSIGNMENT: 18% of your final grade will be based on your researching, conducting and writing up a research project the class will perform.
PURPOSE: Besides further developing writing skills, this project is designed to familiarize you with performing literature searches, using libraries and computer searches, designing a project and in general, teaching you procedures scientists follow to prepare, perform and present a research project. Above all it is designed to make you observe and think!
Part I: Literature Search - 3% of this grade will be based on your performing an electronic search and a personal literature search. This will require you to hand in a copy of your DIALOG search and bibliography cards for at least 15 sources of your own finding.
Part II: Rough Draft - 5% of this grade will be based upon your handing in a 3-5 page rough draft of your introduction and materials and methods sections.
Part III: Project Write-up - 10% of this grade will based on your writing an 8-10 page scientific paper at the completion of your project. Details will be given in class. Successful participation and conduction of your experiment will also be included.
GRADING: Will be based on-
Part I: The quality, quantity, relevance and originality of your sources and the format of each reference. These must deal with your section of the project, be used by you in writing your paper and include notes indicating you've looked at the reference. At least fifteen must be turned in and over half must be used in the final paper. Presence of electronic report.
Part II: Quality and completeness of your first two sections.
Part III: Fulfilling requirements:
Neatness and freedom from typographical errors
Following scientific rules of writing (Pechenik's text will be the standard)
At least twenty references must be in Bibliography and paper
Paper must be written and typed by the student on a computer.
Discs must be turned in.
DUE DATES: In lecture-
Part I: Feb. 16
Part II: Mar. 16 - Rough draft of Introduction & Materials and Methods sections due.
Part III: Apr. 13- Final draft
If any portion of the project is turned in late, your grade on that section will be lowered one letter grade for each day it is late. Nothing will be accepted after one week.
Electronic search must be conducted at APU.
Only the Harvard Method of citing sources and the bibliography method used in
Pechenik's text will be accepted.
BIOL 112 GENERAL BIOLOGY II
Dr. Scott S. Kinnes
Azusa Pacific University
I Peter 1:14-15
II Corinthians 3:18
Basic Premises I
hard to understand sometimes
Bible is not:
easy to understand
Basic Premises II
Origins is not that big a deal
It does affect a lot
It is not only thing Christian science should study: ie. Cal's story
Bible does not say "Believe in a 7 day creation and thou shalt be saved"
Basic Premises III
There are options and we will discuss them
Microevolution vs Macroevolution
God did it
Had to be involved at several points
Adam and Eve were real people
"Yom" in Genesis 1 means a 24 hour period of time
God literally did it in six literal days
This is the point of view of ICR, et. al
Middle of the Road Theories
Gap, Ruin, Reconstruction
Pure Evolution I
Geocentric to Heliocentric
Catastrophism to Uniformitarianism
Creationism to Evolutionism
Long periods of time
Microevolution leading to Macroevolution
Pure Evolution II
Geologic Time Scale
Pure Evolution III
Early earth atmosphere
Early biological evolution
Old earth gives time for micro to lead to macro
1 = p2 + 2pq + q2
Five conditions must be met
Three types of selection
Micro or Macro Evolution??
Mechanisms pg. 709-712
Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium
Homologous vs. Analogous
Patterns of Evolution
Evolution of Primates
Pure evolution and macroevolution
Most controversial aspect
What Darwin did not say
Prosimians to primates: pg. 982
Hominoids to hominids: pg. 984
Hominids to Homo sapiens sapiens: pg. 988
added class, order, genus
Based on assumed evolutionary phylogeny
Each organism has a unique name
Name is universal
Name should remain the same
Genus capped, species not
italicized when typed
underlined when written
Why should we not care?
Why should we care?
A Christian View
Basis: Our relation to God
Stewards of what?
Stewardship Ecology I
God created it
Gen. 1:1; John 1:3
God owns it
I Cor. 10:26; Ps. 5:10-11
God created it good
Stewardship Ecology II
Part of that goodness is man's place
"kabash" - to subdue
"radah" - to rule over
"shamar" - keep: Gen. 4:9, Ps. 23:1
"abad"- serve: Josh. 24:15
Stewardship Ecology III
Man's fall affected all
Gen. 3:17, Rom. 8:20-22
Jesus Christ came to save all: John 3:16
time, people, everything
Universe still glorifies God
Ps. 19: 1-6, Acts 14:17
Stewardship Ecology IV
Universe still leads to God
Rom. 1:20, Ps. 19
God still sustains it and loves it
Col. 1:16-17, Heb. 1:3, Acts 14:17
Lots of specifics
Ecosystem is primary unit of description
All share four components
Population Dynamics I
Basic unit of study
Population Dynamics II
Population Growth I
Population Growth II
Four phases of S-curved
Human population growth
Population Regulation I
r-selected vs. K-selected species
small, short lived, early repro, many offspring, little care, cyclic, type III curve
like variable environments
just the opposite
Population Regulation II
Density dependent mechanisms
Density independent mechanisms
Composed of populations in area
Competitive Exclusion Principle
Relation to r and K species
Why a pyramid?
Gaseous vs. Sedimentary cycles
Climate vs. weather
Creation of climate
Created by differences of:
Terrestrial vs. aquatic
estruary, tide pool, seashore, open ocean, coral reef
pond, lake, swamp, bog, rivers
Know Table 15.1 pg. 310
Plant Organ Systems
Creates Soil Profile
Soil ComponentsOrganic Matter
Longitudinal SectionRoot Cap
Zone of Cell Division
Zone of Cell Elongation
Zone of Cell Maturation
Monocot vs Dicot
Node vs Internode
Herbaceous Dicot Cross-section
Woody Dicot Cross-section
Changes in Leaves
TATC Theory: Transpiration-Adhesion-Tension-Cohesion Theory
Requires a continuous pipe
Requires a continual column of water
Adhesion, Tension, Cohesion
Requires a driving force
Transpiration, Osmosis, Imbibition
Introduction: Table 23.1 pg. 487
IAA- Indoleacetic Acid
Control of Flowering
Types of cycles
Alternation of Generations
Aquatic to Terrestrial Adaptions
Bryophytes- non-vascular, seedless
Division Hepatophyta: Liverworts
Division Anthocerophyta: Hornworts
Division Psiliophyta: Mosses
Division Psilophyta: Psilopsids
Division Lycophyta: Club mosses
Division Sphenophyta: Horsetails
Division Pterophyta: Ferns
Division Coniferophyta: Conifers
Division Cycadophyta: Cycads
Division Ginkophyta: Ginkos
Division Anthophyta: Flowering Plants
Class Monocotyledones: Monocots
Class Dicotyledones: Dicots