DR. K's WRITING
CHAPTER 7: Adobe
In order to maximize
your ability to manipulate a photograph, a program like Adobe
Photoshop is needed. This versatile program allows you to paint,
edit, compose, and adjust photographs to best suit your purposes. For
the purposes of this manual we will be working with only photographs
you have taken using the Kodak Digital Camera 40 as explained in
section III and which have been moved from the camera to the computer
via Kodak's PhotoEnhancer program. However, realize that any image on
a disk, from a scanner, another program, a CD-ROM, etc. can be
manipulated also. In addition, you can also use the program to create
your own diagrams and figures.
Remember that this
manual is simply an introduction to these programs and is not meant
to cover all the advanced capabilities that they may offer. This is
particularly true of Adobe Photoshop. If you wish to delve into the
program, the built in help program and balloon captions are always
available. Should you wish access to the manual, see your professor.
To begin the program,
simply double click on the Adobe folder and then on the Photoshop
icon. The Adobe window, seen in figure 7, will open showing a menu
bar at the top, a toolbox on the left and a total of eight palettes
that are in three groups at the bottom of the window.
1. Toolbox: The toolbox
contains a large number of items that are the basic tools for the
program. They will be explained row by row fro top to bottom, left to
right as seen in figure 8.
Allows you to make a selection in a rectangular or elliptical
pattern. Click on this icon until the desired shape appears, then
click where you want to start your selection on the photo and drag to
the size shape you wish.
b. Lasso: Allows you to
make a free-hand selection. Once selected, click on the photo and
simply draw the shape you wish to select while holding the mouse
button down. Release when completed.
c. Wand: Creates a
selection based upon color. Once selected, clicking it on an area of
a certain color will select all other areas of similar color.
d. Crossed arrows:
Allows you to move a selection to another area. Click on the
selection and drag to the desired location.
e. Hand: Allows you to
move to different sections of the photo that are not showing in the
window. Drag the photo from side to side or up and
f. Magnifying lens: This
tool enlarges the image simply by clicking on the icon, then on the
image. Any selection can be enlarged by clicking on it
g. Cropping: Clicking on
this tool allows you to crop out unwanted portions of a photo. Click
on it, then use it to create a square or rectangular image that will
be your new photo. Anything outside the cropping tool will be
h. "T": Turns your
cursor into a typing tool. Wherever it is placed, you can type
captions, labels, etc.
i. Paint bucket: Allows
you to fill an area in one solid color. The area filled will be made
up by the natural partitions of the photo. The color used is shown at
the bottom of the toolbox and is changed using the "Swatches"
j. Gradient pattern:
Fills in the area selected in a gradient of the foreground color, not
a solid color.
k. Line: Draws a
straight line between where the cursor is clicked and where it is
released. Line color is selected by clicking on the "foreground
color" box while line width is selected by double clicking on the
line icon itself and setting "line width" in the "Line Options"
palette that appears.
l. Eyedropper: Allows
you to take a sample of color from the photo to allow you to identify
it, match it or use it.
m. Eraser: Allows any
part of the image to be erased. Click and drag over the area to be
n. Pencil: Clicking on
this icon allows you to freehand draw.
o. Airbrush: Allows you
to paint with an airbrush of varying widths and colors. Widths can be
selected by using the "Brush" palette while the color can be changed
using the "Swatch" palette. Click on the icon and click and drag
where you wish to paint.
p. Paintbrush: Similar
in use to the airbrush icon, but this tool gives you more control and
allows finer detail.
q. Rubber stamp: Allows
you to create duplicates or clones of selected areas of images. After
clicking on the tool, select the brush size. Move to any area you
wish to copy and option-click on it. Then move to an area where you
wish to reproduce it and click and drag. The pattern and color just
copied will be reproduced.
r. Fingertip: This
"smudge" tool creates an image similar to dragging a finger through
(sharpen/soften): Clicking on this icon will first switch between the
triangle (sharpened) and raindrop (soften). Once selected, clicking
on the area of the photo and dragging across it will increasingly
lighten or darken it.
t. Circle on the stick:
Allows you to lighten, darken or change the color saturation of an
area. Clicking on the icon rotates between three different squares:
stick for lightening, hand for darkening and sponge for changing the
color saturation. (Technically, these techniques are dodging, burning
and sponging, respectively.
u. Colored squares:
Informs you as to what is currently the primary or foreground color,
background or secondary color and the default colors, in the little
squares. Colors can be changed by clicking on the one you wish to
change and using the "Swatch" palette.
v. Squares and Circles:
Allows you to create "masks" for complex art work. See Photoshop
w. Three boxes: Allows
you to switch between three different screen modes: standard window,
full screen with menu bar, and full screen without menu
2. Palettes: The eight
palettes, arranged in groups, are visible by the "file tabs" bearing
their names or by making them appear using the "Window" menu item. .
By clicking on the tab, that one will come to the foreground. By
dragging the tab, you can separate it from its group and place it
elsewhere in the window. The basic operation of each palette is
discussed below. Details are provided in the manual but most offer
additional option menus by clicking and holding on the small triangle
to the right of the file tab.
a. Color Palettes: Used
to manipulate color of foreground, background, pens, brushes,
Picker tab: click on top
box to select foreground color, bottom box for background. Clicking
on a color on the bottom bar sets the color. The R, G and B sliders
can be used to further refine and define the color.
Swatches tab: this
palette allows you to select and activate any color for whatever tool
you are using. Simply click on the color to select it. Using the
scroll bar allows additional colors to be displayed.
Scratch tab: this
palette also allows you to select colors but in a slightly different
way with an array of colors and variations.
b. Brush Palettes: used
to change various items regarding the size of paintbrush, airbrush,
Brush tab: Provides a
variety of brush sizes with additional choices of sharp or diffused
edges. Scrolling through the box provides unusual shapes and
patterns, as shown to the left.
Paintbrush options tab:
Allows numerous variations in the brushes to be
Info tab: allows you to
gain information on colors in your photo and to make adjustments
c. Layers Palettes:
allows the creation of layers that can be placed on top of each other
like transparencies. This allows the creation of complex designs or
Layer tab: allows the
user to create, save and use layers.
Channel tab: this
palette stores color information for photos, masks and
Path tabs: provides
access to the pen tool that allows very accurate lines and curves to
be drawn through the use of anchor points. Using balloon help will
assist in learning the uses of the numerous icons.
The use of this toolbox
and the palettes opens up the vast majority of the possibilities in
using Adobe Photoshop. Students interested in using this program to
its fullest should contact their professor for the maker's
However, the basic
processes needed in this class are explained in the following
B. Opening a Saved
Once an image has been
saved using Kodak's PhotoEnhancer, it can be opened by simply
selecting "Open" under "File" on the menu. The program will then
allow you to open a photo from either a folder on the hard drive or a
Once you have opened
such a photo, and saved it again, it will have an Adobe designation
with a red line through it.
C. Selecting a Portion
of an Image
If you are not
interested in the entire photo you will probably wish to crop or
select just a portion of it to work with. This is particularly
helpful since both disk and paper space will be at a premium. Saving
or using a smaller image will save significant disk or document space
and will, usually, produce a sharper image.
The best way to select a
portion of the photo is to use the "Cropping" tool as explained in
the "Toolbox" section of V. A.. This tool allows you to easily crop
out the edge or edges by placing the cursor on one side of the
desired image and dragging it to the other side, creating a square or
rectangle. When the mouse button is released a "Selection" border
appears with little black boxes at the corner. These are called
By clicking on the
handles, using the arrow cursor, you can reposition your selection.
By using the "command" key and the cursor you can move the entire
cropping box around the photo.
When you are satisfied
with the selection, select "Save as" and give a new name to this
version. This allows you to maintain the original for future
"rectangular/elliptical" and "Lasso" tool can also be used in much
the same manner. However, these allow you to create new images that
are rectangular, elliptical, oval or free-hand shapes.
D. Varying the Image
Since there is a direct
relationship between image size, image quality and amount of space
required to save an image, there is much that comes into play in
varying the size of an image. However, it is possible to shrink or
enlarge all or part of an image.
Under "Image" in the
menu. the "Image Size" command can be used to change the size of the
photo, either the entire original or a selection or cropped version
of the original that has been saved as a new file. When the "Image
Size" window appears, as seen in figure 9, it will give you the
current size of the image in disk space (K), width and height
(inches) and resolution (pixels/inch). By clicking on the width,
height, or resolution, the dimension can be changed. The other
dimensions will change accordingly to keep the image proportional. By
clicking and dragging on the "inches" bar, other units of measurement
will be available. Leaving this window, either by closing it using
the small square in the top left or by clicking on the original
photo, will automatically resize the image.
The "Magnify" tool in
the toolbox can also be used to enlarge the image. See section V. A.
Once the basic photo has
been selected and properly sized, it can be "enhanced" in many
In the toolbox, section
V. A. 1. , the blur/sharpen, and dodge/burn/sponge tools located at
the bottom of the toolbox were explained. By selecting these tools
and passing them back and forth over the desired area, the chosen
effect can be created. The blur/sharpen tools are self-explanatory.
The dodge tools will allow you to lighten an area that may be in
shadows, the burn tools will allow a bright or highlighted area to be
darkened and the sponge tool allows you to increase or decrease the
color saturation of an area or selection.
Menu options also give
you the opportunity to modify or retouch your photo. The following
items will be fairly self-explanatory once they are accessed. Details
on the items are also available in the "Help" section and the manual.
"Adjust": allows the
adjustment of levels, curves. brightness/contrast, color balance and
hue/saturation. Also allows the color to be replaced, selected and
"Flip": allows the photo
to be flipped horizontally or vertically.
"Rotate": allows the
image to be rotated on its axis, 180o, 90o, arbitrarily or freely.
"Effects": allows the
image to be subjected to various special effects such as scaling,
skewing, distorting or changing the perspective.
"Modify": allows the
modification of border, smooth, and expanding or contracting the
One of the more
important menu items as it allows you to create "filters" through
which the entire photo or a selection can be viewed. The primary
options here all have alternatives within them that can easily be
applied. The filters themselves are: blur, distort, noise, pixelate,
sharpen and stylize.
NOTE: Remember to always
save your photo as you are working on it in case something happens to
the computer and you loose all your work. See the next section for
how to do this.
F. Saving an
As with the word
processor, it is very important to save your work periodically
throughout your session and not just at the end. However, you are
most likely going to have many more variations of your photo than of
your word document. Therefore, you are going to be using "Save As"
"Save" is used simply to
save a copy of what you are creating originally or to save a
variation of it over the original.
"Save As" is used to
save a new version of the photo without destroying the old version.
It allows you to rename the photo and designate a new location to
save it. Note: This should also be used to create a backup copy on
the hard drive which you can drag to your backup disk when you end
When saving a photo you will be given the option to select both the
format and the compression of the saved object. For Macs the best
formats are TIFF or PICT. When you change the amount of compression,
remember that this is a trade-off as the more compression you set the
less space it will take but the poorer the quality of the saved
image. Practicing with the particular photo you are using is the only
sure way to be sure of the effect you are having by compressing it.
One thing to keep in mind as you make the decision is where you will
be saving the image. If it is to a disk, more compression may be
needed. If it is to the hard drive, less or no compression may be