CHAPTER 7: Adobe Photoshop

In order to maximize your ability to manipulate a photograph, a program like Adobe Photoshop is needed. This versatile program allows you to paint, edit, compose, and adjust photographs to best suit your purposes. For the purposes of this manual we will be working with only photographs you have taken using the Kodak Digital Camera 40 as explained in section III and which have been moved from the camera to the computer via Kodak's PhotoEnhancer program. However, realize that any image on a disk, from a scanner, another program, a CD-ROM, etc. can be manipulated also. In addition, you can also use the program to create your own diagrams and figures.
Remember that this manual is simply an introduction to these programs and is not meant to cover all the advanced capabilities that they may offer. This is particularly true of Adobe Photoshop. If you wish to delve into the program, the built in help program and balloon captions are always available. Should you wish access to the manual, see your professor.
A. Basic Operation
To begin the program, simply double click on the Adobe folder and then on the Photoshop icon. The Adobe window, seen in figure 7, will open showing a menu bar at the top, a toolbox on the left and a total of eight palettes that are in three groups at the bottom of the window.
1. Toolbox: The toolbox contains a large number of items that are the basic tools for the program. They will be explained row by row fro top to bottom, left to right as seen in figure 8.
a. Rectangle/elliptical: Allows you to make a selection in a rectangular or elliptical pattern. Click on this icon until the desired shape appears, then click where you want to start your selection on the photo and drag to the size shape you wish.
b. Lasso: Allows you to make a free-hand selection. Once selected, click on the photo and simply draw the shape you wish to select while holding the mouse button down. Release when completed.
c. Wand: Creates a selection based upon color. Once selected, clicking it on an area of a certain color will select all other areas of similar color.
d. Crossed arrows: Allows you to move a selection to another area. Click on the selection and drag to the desired location.
e. Hand: Allows you to move to different sections of the photo that are not showing in the window. Drag the photo from side to side or up and down.
f. Magnifying lens: This tool enlarges the image simply by clicking on the icon, then on the image. Any selection can be enlarged by clicking on it alone.
g. Cropping: Clicking on this tool allows you to crop out unwanted portions of a photo. Click on it, then use it to create a square or rectangular image that will be your new photo. Anything outside the cropping tool will be omitted.
h. "T": Turns your cursor into a typing tool. Wherever it is placed, you can type captions, labels, etc.
i. Paint bucket: Allows you to fill an area in one solid color. The area filled will be made up by the natural partitions of the photo. The color used is shown at the bottom of the toolbox and is changed using the "Swatches" palette.
j. Gradient pattern: Fills in the area selected in a gradient of the foreground color, not a solid color.
k. Line: Draws a straight line between where the cursor is clicked and where it is released. Line color is selected by clicking on the "foreground color" box while line width is selected by double clicking on the line icon itself and setting "line width" in the "Line Options" palette that appears.
l. Eyedropper: Allows you to take a sample of color from the photo to allow you to identify it, match it or use it.
m. Eraser: Allows any part of the image to be erased. Click and drag over the area to be removed.
n. Pencil: Clicking on this icon allows you to freehand draw.
o. Airbrush: Allows you to paint with an airbrush of varying widths and colors. Widths can be selected by using the "Brush" palette while the color can be changed using the "Swatch" palette. Click on the icon and click and drag where you wish to paint.
p. Paintbrush: Similar in use to the airbrush icon, but this tool gives you more control and allows finer detail.
q. Rubber stamp: Allows you to create duplicates or clones of selected areas of images. After clicking on the tool, select the brush size. Move to any area you wish to copy and option-click on it. Then move to an area where you wish to reproduce it and click and drag. The pattern and color just copied will be reproduced.
r. Fingertip: This "smudge" tool creates an image similar to dragging a finger through wet paint.
s. Triangle/raindrop (sharpen/soften): Clicking on this icon will first switch between the triangle (sharpened) and raindrop (soften). Once selected, clicking on the area of the photo and dragging across it will increasingly lighten or darken it.
t. Circle on the stick: Allows you to lighten, darken or change the color saturation of an area. Clicking on the icon rotates between three different squares: stick for lightening, hand for darkening and sponge for changing the color saturation. (Technically, these techniques are dodging, burning and sponging, respectively.
u. Colored squares: Informs you as to what is currently the primary or foreground color, background or secondary color and the default colors, in the little squares. Colors can be changed by clicking on the one you wish to change and using the "Swatch" palette.
v. Squares and Circles: Allows you to create "masks" for complex art work. See Photoshop documentation.
w. Three boxes: Allows you to switch between three different screen modes: standard window, full screen with menu bar, and full screen without menu bar.
2. Palettes: The eight palettes, arranged in groups, are visible by the "file tabs" bearing their names or by making them appear using the "Window" menu item. . By clicking on the tab, that one will come to the foreground. By dragging the tab, you can separate it from its group and place it elsewhere in the window. The basic operation of each palette is discussed below. Details are provided in the manual but most offer additional option menus by clicking and holding on the small triangle to the right of the file tab.
a. Color Palettes: Used to manipulate color of foreground, background, pens, brushes, buckets, etc.
Picker tab: click on top box to select foreground color, bottom box for background. Clicking on a color on the bottom bar sets the color. The R, G and B sliders can be used to further refine and define the color.
Swatches tab: this palette allows you to select and activate any color for whatever tool you are using. Simply click on the color to select it. Using the scroll bar allows additional colors to be displayed.
Scratch tab: this palette also allows you to select colors but in a slightly different way with an array of colors and variations.
b. Brush Palettes: used to change various items regarding the size of paintbrush, airbrush, etc.
Brush tab: Provides a variety of brush sizes with additional choices of sharp or diffused edges. Scrolling through the box provides unusual shapes and patterns, as shown to the left.
Paintbrush options tab: Allows numerous variations in the brushes to be selected.
Info tab: allows you to gain information on colors in your photo and to make adjustments accordingly.
c. Layers Palettes: allows the creation of layers that can be placed on top of each other like transparencies. This allows the creation of complex designs or composites.
Layer tab: allows the user to create, save and use layers.
Channel tab: this palette stores color information for photos, masks and selections.
Path tabs: provides access to the pen tool that allows very accurate lines and curves to be drawn through the use of anchor points. Using balloon help will assist in learning the uses of the numerous icons.
The use of this toolbox and the palettes opens up the vast majority of the possibilities in using Adobe Photoshop. Students interested in using this program to its fullest should contact their professor for the maker's documentation.
However, the basic processes needed in this class are explained in the following sections.
B. Opening a Saved Image:
Once an image has been saved using Kodak's PhotoEnhancer, it can be opened by simply selecting "Open" under "File" on the menu. The program will then allow you to open a photo from either a folder on the hard drive or a floppy disk.
Once you have opened such a photo, and saved it again, it will have an Adobe designation with a red line through it.
C. Selecting a Portion of an Image
If you are not interested in the entire photo you will probably wish to crop or select just a portion of it to work with. This is particularly helpful since both disk and paper space will be at a premium. Saving or using a smaller image will save significant disk or document space and will, usually, produce a sharper image.
The best way to select a portion of the photo is to use the "Cropping" tool as explained in the "Toolbox" section of V. A.. This tool allows you to easily crop out the edge or edges by placing the cursor on one side of the desired image and dragging it to the other side, creating a square or rectangle. When the mouse button is released a "Selection" border appears with little black boxes at the corner. These are called "handles".
By clicking on the handles, using the arrow cursor, you can reposition your selection. By using the "command" key and the cursor you can move the entire cropping box around the photo.
When you are satisfied with the selection, select "Save as" and give a new name to this version. This allows you to maintain the original for future use.
The "rectangular/elliptical" and "Lasso" tool can also be used in much the same manner. However, these allow you to create new images that are rectangular, elliptical, oval or free-hand shapes.
D. Varying the Image Size
Since there is a direct relationship between image size, image quality and amount of space required to save an image, there is much that comes into play in varying the size of an image. However, it is possible to shrink or enlarge all or part of an image.
Under "Image" in the menu. the "Image Size" command can be used to change the size of the photo, either the entire original or a selection or cropped version of the original that has been saved as a new file. When the "Image Size" window appears, as seen in figure 9, it will give you the current size of the image in disk space (K), width and height (inches) and resolution (pixels/inch). By clicking on the width, height, or resolution, the dimension can be changed. The other dimensions will change accordingly to keep the image proportional. By clicking and dragging on the "inches" bar, other units of measurement will be available. Leaving this window, either by closing it using the small square in the top left or by clicking on the original photo, will automatically resize the image.
The "Magnify" tool in the toolbox can also be used to enlarge the image. See section V. A. 1.
E. Retouching/Modifying an Image
Once the basic photo has been selected and properly sized, it can be "enhanced" in many ways.
In the toolbox, section V. A. 1. , the blur/sharpen, and dodge/burn/sponge tools located at the bottom of the toolbox were explained. By selecting these tools and passing them back and forth over the desired area, the chosen effect can be created. The blur/sharpen tools are self-explanatory. The dodge tools will allow you to lighten an area that may be in shadows, the burn tools will allow a bright or highlighted area to be darkened and the sponge tool allows you to increase or decrease the color saturation of an area or selection.
Menu options also give you the opportunity to modify or retouch your photo. The following items will be fairly self-explanatory once they are accessed. Details on the items are also available in the "Help" section and the manual.
"Image" menu option
"Adjust": allows the adjustment of levels, curves. brightness/contrast, color balance and hue/saturation. Also allows the color to be replaced, selected and desaturated.
"Flip": allows the photo to be flipped horizontally or vertically.
"Rotate": allows the image to be rotated on its axis, 180o, 90o, arbitrarily or freely.
"Effects": allows the image to be subjected to various special effects such as scaling, skewing, distorting or changing the perspective.
"Select" menu option
"Modify": allows the modification of border, smooth, and expanding or contracting the image.
"Filter" menu option"
One of the more important menu items as it allows you to create "filters" through which the entire photo or a selection can be viewed. The primary options here all have alternatives within them that can easily be applied. The filters themselves are: blur, distort, noise, pixelate, sharpen and stylize.
NOTE: Remember to always save your photo as you are working on it in case something happens to the computer and you loose all your work. See the next section for how to do this.
F. Saving an Image
As with the word processor, it is very important to save your work periodically throughout your session and not just at the end. However, you are most likely going to have many more variations of your photo than of your word document. Therefore, you are going to be using "Save As" more frequently.
"Save" is used simply to save a copy of what you are creating originally or to save a variation of it over the original.
"Save As" is used to save a new version of the photo without destroying the old version. It allows you to rename the photo and designate a new location to save it. Note: This should also be used to create a backup copy on the hard drive which you can drag to your backup disk when you end the session.

Format/Compression: When saving a photo you will be given the option to select both the format and the compression of the saved object. For Macs the best formats are TIFF or PICT. When you change the amount of compression, remember that this is a trade-off as the more compression you set the less space it will take but the poorer the quality of the saved image. Practicing with the particular photo you are using is the only sure way to be sure of the effect you are having by compressing it. One thing to keep in mind as you make the decision is where you will be saving the image. If it is to a disk, more compression may be needed. If it is to the hard drive, less or no compression may be required.