Dr. K's Classes:

BIOL 220 Microbiology- Nurses

  
 

SYLLABUS

 

SPRING 1999

 

"Do not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but be

transformed by the renewing of your mind." Romans 12:2a

 

PREPARED BY: Dr. Scott S. Kinnes, Office W-08, ext 3362

COURSE: BIOL-220 General Microbiology

COURSE A study of the fundamental principles and techniques of microbiology

CONTENT: through lecture and laboratory experience.

 

COURSE To develop an understanding of microorganisms and their impact on

OBJECTIVE: human life while gaining expertise in practical microbiological techniques.

 

REQUIRED Text: Fundamentals of Microbiology, I.E. Alcamo, 1994

READING: Manual: Microbiology in Practice, L. Beishir, 1996

 

COURSE REQUIREMENTS:

 

Tests: Lecture: 4 lecture tests = 40%

Final Exam = 15%

Lab 3 lab practicals = 20%

 

Unknown: 10%

Paper: 10%

Disease Profile: 5%

 

Course philosophy material

 

Please note the following:

 

1. Tests-

a. No students will receive a "C" or better course grade without achieving at least a 70% average on the four lecture tests, final exam and three lab practicals. Unknown, paper, etc. cannot increase an "exam" average of less than 70%

 

b. Each lecture test and lab practical will cover only material since the last test. However, essay questions on lecture tests may require, include or be based upon past knowledge.

2. Other requirements- See individual attached sheets for each item.

3. All grading - The following scale applies:

 

Grading Scale: 'A' = 100-92 C' = 77.9-72

'A-' = 91.9-90 'C-' = 71.9-70

'B+' = 89.9-88 'D+' = 69.9-68

'B' = 87.9-82 'D' = 67.9-62

'B-' = 81.9-80 'D-' = 61.9-60

'C+' = 79.9-78 'F' = 59.9-0

 

4. All students receicing a "D" or "F" on any test must meet with the professor within two weeks of that test. Students must bring their test with them. Failure to meet will lower the final course grade five points.

 

 

COURSE PHILOSOPHY

 

This course is designed to teach you several things. In no particular order they are: biology, how to survive life after APU, and how to integrate your Christian faith with virtually everything you do. Granted, that may seem like a big statement, so let me explain what I mean.

 

MICROBIOLOGY: Hopefully, since this is a course entitled "General Microbiology" you will learn something about that subject through taking this course! This will be done through the lectures, the labs, the quizzes and exams and the papers. This aspect of the course is to be a two-way street and will require work on your part that goes beyond the tests and papers. You will be expected to read the material prior to the lecture or lab and to review those sections which you still do not understand after class. I stand ready, willing and able to help you through any dificulties that you may encounter but only after you have at least made an effort to understand it on your own. This is particularly important in lab as I will not answer foolish questions that indicate that you have not previously read the exercises.

 

LIFE AFTER APU: More importantly, perhaps, this course, like college in general, is designed to teach you how to survive after college. This includes life in graduate school, whatever job you may get and life in general. Lord willing, most of you are aware that college is a very sheltered environment but, unfortunately, many students experience a rude awakening when they graduate. I intend for this course to be like life--difficult but not impossible. The rules and regulations under which this course will operate will hopefully prepare you for life in the real world. These are listed below and I advise you to read them periodically as ignorance will be no excuse for failing to comply with them. The policies on class attendance, tardiness, late papers, make-up exams, timed tests, etc. are all an integral part of this course and will be followed for all but the most extreme cases. As in all of this, I do not want you to think that you have entered a Marine boot camp or something. I realize that there are often events in your lives that prevent you from meeting these requirements and I want you to know that I am very sensitive to these occurrences. Therefore, if you believe that you have a legitimate excuse, please come to me and bring it to my attention.

 

1. Tests: This will begin with the quizzes, exams and practicals themselves.Since life is rarely a question of multiple choice, fill in the blank, etc. types of questions, on my tests will be only partially made up of these types of questions. In life you will constantly be faced with having to put together various things you know to arrive at an answer. You will then have to formulate that answer into a cohesive, comprehensible form that can be expressed to others. Therefore, my tests will always include at least one essay question in which you will be required to put down in correct form a paragraph that will demonstrate your knowledge of the subject under discussion. If you omit important information or do not put the answer down in an essay format, you will lose points. Often, however, the questions will be short answers (usually lists of some type, often with short elaborations) or diagrams of something we have discussed and there will always be a vocabulary question with a list of important words for which you must furnish a short sentence type answer that completely defines the words as we discussed them.

 

2. Attendance: School policy is that "excessive absences will affect (sic) the student's final grade" (Faculty Handbook). As I have noticed, a definite correlation between grades and attendance I will lower your final grade for excessive absences. The only way that you are going to develop the habit of pushing yourself to do what you need to do is to be held accountable for your actions. Therefore, the first three lecture absences will be ignored. After that, however, each absence will lower your final grade by four points so that an extra three absences will lower your grade one full letter. In lab, any unexcused absence will result in a drop of 10 points in your final lab grade. You are also responsible for attending the entire lab so do not make plans to leave early. I will take attendance at the end of lab and if you are not present at that time, you will be counted absent.

It is your responsibility to explain your absences and to obtain all information presented during your absence. Excused absences include illnesses verified by a doctor's note, occasional absence due to extra-curricular activities and a few others as determined by me. An attendance sheet will be passed around during class for you to sign your name if you are present. Anyone caught signing another person's name will receive an "F" for the course.

 

3. Tardies: Just as important as attending class is coming on time; again this is also important in real life. Three tardies will constitute an unexcused absence. If you are tardy be sure to see me after class to be sure that you are not counted absent. Failure to do so by the end of the period will result in an unexcused absence!!

 

4. Make-up Exams: Make-up exams will be given only in very special circumstances such as illness, verified by a doctor. Such things as leaving early for a break, not having time to study, etc. will not be allowed and you will get a zero for that grade. In any case, please try and contact me or my secretary (ext. 3840) beforehand and you must contact me within a week of missing any test to explain why you missed it. Failure to do so will prevent you from being able to take a make-up exam. All make-up tests will be given on Monday, April 20. No early exams, quizzes, etc. will be allowed so it is your responsibility to make arrangements with me to take the test on that day, at least a week in advance. Failure to do so will result in your receiving a zero for that grade.

 

5. Late Papers, etc.: NO late papers, projects, etc. will be accepted unless they are handed in posthumously. The due date will be given far in advance so you will have plenty of time to prepare for it. The material is due during that day's lecture or lab period, depending on what it relates to, and not just prior to midnight of that day! No early presentations will be allowed.

 

6. Timed Tests: The majority of the tests that you will have to take throughout your life will be timed in some manner. If you have not learned to gauge your time and move along at the correct pace, you will not pass these tests. To help you develop these skills all tests in this course will be timed. You will have a certain amount of time to take each test and at the end of that time all papers will be collected. It is, therefore, very important that you are not late on test days. If you have a disability of some type that prevents you from handling material at a normal rate, then please see me so that special arrangements can be made.

 

7. Cheating: If you are caught cheating on a test/paper, you will receive a zero for that test/paper. If you are caught cheating on a second test/paper, you will receive an "F" in the course. All cases of cheating will be reported to the Dean of Students. If you are suspected of cheating, I reserve the right to have you take another test on that material. If you are in doubt of what constitutes cheating, please refer to the University's Student Handbook.

 

8. Learning Enrichment Center: In an effort to assist students having difficulty in classes, the University has established an excellent Learning Enrichment Center which has become a model for Southern California schools. It is available to assist you with general and specific study programs.

Any student receiving a "D" or "F" on any of the first three lecture tests can increast that grade by seeking individual or group tutoring assistance. Students receiving four hours of tutoring bewfore the next test will have the original grade raised five points or half the difference between the two grades, whichever is higher. The LEC's attendance records are all that will be accepted.

 

FAITH AND LIFE: Finally, both by my example and the content of the course, I would like to help you learn that all aspects of your life can and must be brought under the Lordship of Jesus Christ. Too often we relegate God to those aspects of our lives that seem to have some obvious relation to Him, i.e., church activities, religion courses, etc. However, it is very important that God be involved and considered in all that you are involved in. Currently the Lord has called each of you to be students in this course and that must be your primary task over the next few weeks. God has also called you to be the best students you can possibly be and that means putting a lot of energy and effort into this course. I will attempt to teach you how God can be relevant to something that might seem as "unChristian" as microbiology throughout the course even though the author of the texts we'll be using is a strict evolutionist. You, however, must also do your part in being a responsible Christian student.

 

TENTATIVE

MICROBIOLOGY LECTURE SCHEDULE

 

DATE DAY CHAPTER TOPIC

Jan. 12 M Course Introduction 14 W 1 History

16 F 2,5 Biochemistry

19 M HOLIDAY

21 W 2,5 Biochemistry

23 F 4 Cell Structure

26 M 4 Growth

28 W 4 Environ. Effects

30 F 4 Environ. Effects

Feb. 2 M Test 1

4 W 21 Physical Controls 6 F 22,23 Chemical Controls 9 M 6 Genetics

11 W 6 Genetics 13 F PRESIDENTS HOLIDAY

16 M 17 Normal Flora 18 W 17 Epidemiology

20 F 17 Infection

23 M 14 Fungi Diseases

25 W COMMON DAY OF LEARNING

27 F TEST 2

Mar. 2 M 15 Protozoans

4 W 15 Protozoan Diseases

6 F 16 Multicells

9 M 16 Multicell Diseases

11 W 7 Bacterial Diseases

13 F 8 Bacterial Diseases

16 M 9 Bacterial Diseases

18 W 10 Bacterial Diseases

20 F 10 Bacterial Diseases (end of test 3)

LAST DAY TO WITHDRAW

23 M TEST 3

25 W 11 Viruses

27 F 12 Viral Diseases

30 M 12,13 Viral Diseases

Apr. 1 W 13 Viral Diseases

3 F 18 Nonspecific Resistance

6 M EASTER BREAK

8 W

10 F

13 M 18 Nonspecific Resistance

15 W 18,19 Immunology

17 F 18,19 Immunology

20 M TEST 4 (from viruses)

22 W 18,19 Immunology

24 F 20 Immune Disorders

 

FINAL EXAM WILL BE ON WEDNESDAY, APRIL 29, 7:30 A.M.

 

 

TENTATIVE

MICROBIOLOGY LAB SCHEDULE

 

NOTE: Students are expected to always attend the same lab section

Bold dates indicate no lab on that day.

 

MONTH DATE DAY EXERCISE TOPIC

JAN 14 W 2,3 MEDIA PREPARATION

16 F 4,5,6 SCOPES AND MICROS

21 W 7-11 ASEPTIC TECHNIQUES

23 F 12,13 STREAKING

28 W 21,22,23 STAINING

30 F 25 ACID-FAST STAIN

FEB 4 W 28 OXYGEN NEEDS

6 F 31,32 CHEMICAL CONTROL

11 W 29,30 TEMP/UV EFFECTS

13 F HOLIDAY NO LAB

18 W LAB PRACTICAL I

20 F 33-39 UNKNOWNS

25 W COMMONDAY OF LEARNING - NO LAB

27 F 33-39 UNKNOWNS

MAR 4 W 33-39 UNKNOWNS

6 F 33-39 UNKNOWNS

11 W 15,16 FUNGI

13 F 17,18 PROTOZOANS

18 W LAB PRACTICAL II

20 F 19,20 MULTICELLULARS

25 W 49,54 DIGESTIVE, URINARY TRACT

27 F 50 STAPHYLOCOCCUS

APRIL 1 W 51,52 STREPTOCOCCUS

3 F 53,55 ORAL CAVITY

8 W EASTER BREAK

10 F " " " "

15 W 42,43 MILK AND FOOD

17 F IMMUNOLOGY

22 W 45 AMES TEST

24 F LAB PRACTICAL III

 

 

LAB PROCEDURES & REGULATIONS

 

1. No food or drinks in the lab.

2. No bare feet.

3. Label all test tubes, petri dishes, etc. with the following information

Your name Media

Organism Date

a. Use white tape and ball point pen on glass, wax pencil on plastic.

b. Remove all labels when finished.

4. Place all glassware, cultures, pipettes, etc. in the appropriate area for

autoclaving. Dispose of nothing into the lab trash cans except regular paper

towels.

5. No horseplay in lab.

6. Keep desk top clean of all extra material.

7. Wash down desktop with 10% Clorox before and after lab.

8. Wash hands after lab.

9. Report any reagent or culture spills to me immediately.

10. Use test tube holders, tongs or asbestos gloves to handle hot glassware.

Note: Hot glass looks just like cold glass.

11. Wash out your table cloth thoroughly after lab.

12. Wear the lab coat provided at all times.

13. All long hair must be worn back in a manner to prevent contamination, etc.

14. Read labs prior to coming to class.

15. Take notes: Record dates, times, media, organisms, incubation temperatures, etc. Complete your lab reports immediately after completing the lab. Neatness counts!!!

16. Keep track of the various experiments--note when you need to check or return to certain cultures.

 

 

 

UNKNOWN IDENTIFICATION

 

1. 10% of your grade will be based upon your ability to identify an unknown bacterium correctly, by performing all the tests discussed in this series of labs.

2. As part of this lab experience you must develop, and turn in, a chart of identifying characteristics for each of the microorganisms listed below, which you have compiled on your own.

3. After you have completed your chart, run all your tests and successfully guessed your unknown, you must write up a one-page, typed, double-spaced explanation of why your test results led you to your conclusion.

4. Grading will be done on a minimal basis for the chart and key (5% each for unknown ID) while your ability to identify the unknown on your first try will constitute the majority of the grade. Each unsuccessful attempt to identify the microorganism will lower your grade 10%.

5. Due dates: Chart March 6

(According to Final Unknown ID March 13

your lab) Write-up March 20

6. I will assist you at three points:

a. When you do your gram stain, I will tell you if your stain and shape are correct.

b. When you do each test, I will help you determine if your test result is positive, negative, etc. I will not tell you if that result is correct for your unknown.

c. When you have completed all the tests, have entered them on your completed chart and have narrowed your unknown to two or three possibilities, I will advise you on which tests should be repeated.

 

 

PAPER

 

 

1. 10% of your grade will be based on a 2-3 page paper on an article of interest to your appropriate to this course. The article must be approved by me and no duplicates will be allowed.

2. The paper is to completely "review" the article in your own words. You must include your critique articles connection to class and reason for chosing it. A copy of the article must be included with the final paper.

3. Requirements:

a. 2-3 pages

b. Double spaced

c. Correctly referenced, if needed.

4. Your grade will be based upon:

a. College-level composition/grammar, spelling, neatness and length (10% @)

b. Bibliography and citations, (10%)

c. Content (50%)

5. Remember NO late papers will be accepted.

6. Due Dates: Article selected: Jan. 26

Paper due: March 11

 

NOTE: TWO COPIES OF YOUR PAPER MUST BE TURNED IN.

THE SECOND COPY IS FOR MY ARCHIVES.

 

 

ORAL PRESENTATION EVALUATION

 

COURSE ____________________________________

 

SPEAKER ________________________ DATE __________________

 

TOPIC __________________________ GRADE _________________

POINTS POSSIBLE POINTS EARNED

I. CONTENT

A. Introduction (Preview) 5 ______________

 

B. Body 10 ______________

 

C. Conclusion (Review) 5 ______________

 

D. Logical development 5 ______________

 

E. Clarity 5 ______________

 

F. Apparent knowledge/

understanding of topic 5 ______________

 

G. Length (Time: _______) 10 ______________

 

H. Ability to answer questions 5 ______________

 

II. DELIVERY

A. Posture/Poise 5 ______________

 

B. Use of notes not obvious 5 ______________

 

C. Eye contact with audience 5 ______________

 

D. Use of fillers (ahs, ums, etc.) 5 ______________

 

III. VISUAL AIDS

Type(s): Slides, overheads, chalk board, handouts, props, other (Circle ones used) _________

 

A. Visual clarity 5 ______________

 

B. Supports presentation 5 ______________

 

C. Relevance 5 ______________

 

D. Evidence of preparation 5 ______________

 

IV. MISCELLANEOUS

A Originality/Style 5 ______________

 

B. Overall impact 5 ______________

 

TOTAL 100 ______________

 

 

DISEASE PROFILES

 

 

1. 5% of your grade will be based upon your researching and presenting information on an assigned disease.

 

2. Each profile is to include:

 

History, importance of diseases

Causal organism

Method of transmission

Lifecycle and/or progression in host

Symptoms

Treatment/prevention

Miscellaneous information

 

3. Each presentation is to be 5-10 minutes in length.

 

4. Material should come primarily from your text. This is not meant to be an exhaustive research presentation. A copy of your notes must be provided to professor and your colleagues one day prior to your planned presentation date.

 

5. Grading will be based upon the attached sheet and being prepared on time.

 

NOTE: Once diseases are assigned, you must be prepared to present your's anytime within one class meeting before or after the scheduled date.

 

6. Students failing to appear on presentation date without a verified acceptable excuse will receive a "O" on that profile, and will not be allowed to make up the grade.

 

7. Slides of many of these diseases will be available. Check with me. Failure to use them will lower your grade.

 

 

 

 

 

 

PHOTOS

 

 

CLASS NOTES

 

BIOL 320 MICROBIOLOGY

Fall 1997

Dr. Scott S. Kinnes

Azusa Pacific University

 

 

History

Three questions had to be answered

How to see them

Where they came from

What caused diseases

How to see them

Hooke

Leeuwenhoek

Where they came from

Two theories

spontaneous generation

life from life

Redi

Pasteur

What causes diseases?

God

Sin

gods

Stars

Balance

Germs

What causes diseases?

Berkeley and Phytophthora infestans

Koch and Bacillus anthracis

Koch's Postulates

Constant association

Isolate, culture, identify

Infect healthy host, it gets sick

Reisolate, reculture, reidentify

 

METABOLISM

Intro

Metabolism

Catabolism

Anabolism

Where in prokaryotes?

Enzymes

Energy

cold cash

checks

CD's

Carbohydrates

Functions

Structure review

Anabolism

Photosynthesis

Chemosynthesis

Catabolism

Fermentation

Aerobic respiration

Anaerobic respiration

Proteins

Functions

Structure Review

Anabolism

Proteins: see Genetics section

Nucleic Acids

Functions

Structure review

Anabolism

see Genetics section

Lipids

Lipid introduction

Fats: function

Fats: structure

Fats: anabolism

Fats: catabolism

Connections

Overall

Carbohydrates and fats

 

CELL ANATOMY

Introduction

Cell

Prokaryotic cell

Eukaryotic cell

Similarities

Differences

Shape

Function of cell wall

May change

Rod

Bacillus, Bacilli

Sphere

Coccus, Cocci

Spiral

Spirillum, Spirilla

Cell Wall

Function

Structure

Gram positive vs. Gram negative

Cell Membrane

Function

Structure

Biochemical pathways

Nuclear Region

Function

Structure

Chromosome

PRibosomes

Function

Structure

Sedimentation constant

Inclusions

Function

Structure

Endospore

Function

Structure

Formation

Flagellum

Function

Structure

Comparison with eukaryotic flagellum

External features

Fimbriae

Pili

Capsule

Slime Layer

 

MICROBIAL GROWTH

 

Introduction

Growth in multicellular organisms

Growth in unicellular organisms

Population growth

exponential growth

Generation time

Growth Curve

Lag Phase

Exponential/Log Phase

Stationary Phase

Death/Decline Phase

Measuring Growth

Direct count

Hemocytometer chamber

Viable Count

Plate Count

Most-probable number

Measuring mass

Limits to Growth:

Nutrients

Essential elements

macronutrients

micronutrients

Non-essential elements

Growth factor analogs

Organisms

Competetion

intraspecific

interspecific

Predation

Mutualism

Commensalism

Parasitism

Allelopathy

Environmental Effects

Temperature

Moisture

pH

Oxygen

Radiation

 

CONTROLS

Introduction

Why?

Physical

Chemical

Physical

Temperature

Oxygen

Radiation

Moisture

Chemical Introduction

Definition

Static

Cidal

non-lytic

lytic

Action seen

Disinfectants and Antiseptics

Definitions

Disinfectant

Antiseptic

Similarities

Differences

Groups

Antibiotics

Definition

Action

Groups

Others

Antimetabolites/ Growth Factor Analogs

 

GENETICS

DEFINITIONS

Genome

Genotype

Phenotype

Strain

Clone

Genetic mantra

DNA

Structure

Replication

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic

RNA

Structure

Types

Transcription

PROTEINS

Structure

Codon/Amino Acid Key

Translation

CHANGING THE GENOME

Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes

Mutations

Genetic Recombinations

MUTATIONS CHANGING THE GENOME

Definition

Wild type vs. Mutant

Causes

Mutagenesis vs. Carcinogenesis

RECOMBINATIONS CHANGING THE GENOME

Conjugation

Transduction

Transformation

 

 

NORMAL FLORA

Introduction

Definition

Symbiosis

Areas to be covered

Skin

Intestinal Tract

Respiratory Tract

Urogenital Tract

Skin

Suitability as habitat

Hidden areas

Orifices

Glands

Intestinal Tract

Oral cavity

Stomach

Small Intestines

Large Intestines

Respiratory Tract

Oral Cavity

Trachea and Bronchus

Lungs

Urogenital Tract

Urethra

male

female

Vagina

 

 

EPIDEMIOLOGY

Introduction

Definition: Transmission of infectious diseases in populations

Elaboration:

communicable

contagious

Reservoirs

Definition

Part of lifecycle?

Normal habitat?

Examples:

Living

hosts vs carriers

Dead

Transmission

Definition

Relation to affected body part

Direct

Indirect

vectors

vehicles

Occurance in Population

Introduction

Sporadic

Endemic

Epidemic

common source

propagated

Pandemic

Control

Against reservoir

Against transmission

 

 

INFECTIONS

Definitions

Introduction

Pathogen, et al.

Host, et al.

Environment

Disease

Infection

Pathogenicity

Virulence

Clinical Stages of Disease

Infection

Incubation

Prodromal

Invasive/Acme

Decline/Defervesence

Convalescence

Process

Entry

Establishment

Spread

Types of Infectious Diseases

Acute

Chronic

Subacute

Latent

Local infection

Focal infection

Systemic infection

Types of Infectious Diseases II

Septicemia

Bacteremia

Viremia

Sapremia

Fungimia

Enzymes Involved

Hyaluronidase

Collagenase

Streptokinase

Coagulase

Bacterial Toxins

Exotoxins

Enterotoxins

Endotoxins

 

FUNGI

Introduction

Heterotrophic, saprotrophic

Eukaryotic

Unicellular, multicellular?

STRUCTURE

Unicellular

Hyphae

septate

aseptate

Mycelium

Fruiting bodies

Reproduction

Unicellular

budding

Filamentous

asexual

sexual

Taxonomy

Introduction

Division Eumycophyta

Class Oomycetes

Class Zygomycetes

Class Ascomycetes

Class Basidiomycetes

Class Deuteromycetes

Yeast Infection

Candida albicans

Moniliasis

Vulvovaginitis

Thrush

Dematophytes

Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton

Athletes foot, groin itch, ringworm

Cryptococcosis

Cryptococcus neoformans

 

 

PROTOZOANS

Introduction

Eukaryotes

Unicellular

Kingdom Protista

Associated with water

Structure

Cyst

Trophozoite

Taxonomy I

Sarcodina
pseudopodia

Amoeba

Mastigophora

flagella

Giardia

Ciliophora

cilia

Paramecium

Sporaozoan/Apicomplexa

non-motile, spore forming, complex cycles

Plasmodium

Apicomplexan

Malaria
Plasmodium spps.

Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasma gondii

Sarcodina

Amoebiasis
Entamoeba histolytica

Cryptosporidiosis

Cryptosporidium coccidi

Pneumocystosis- PCP

Pneumocystis carinii

Mastigophora

Giardiasis
Giardia lamblia

Trichomoniasis

Trichmonas vaginalis

Ciliophora

Balantidiasis
Balantidium coli

 

 

MULTICELLULAR PARASITES

Introduction

Animal Kingdom

Multicellular

Eukaryotic

Heterotrophic

Complex lifecycles

intermediate host

definitive host

NEMATHELMINTHES: Roundworms I

Pinworm
Enterobius vermicularis

Roundworm disease

Ascaris lumbricoides

Trichinosis

Trichinella spiralis

Hookworm

Necator americanus

Whipworm

Trichurias trichiura

Filariasis

Wuchereria bancrofti

 

PLATYHELMINTHES: Flatworms

Introduction

Classes
Cestoda- tapeworms

Trematoda- flukes

Structure

Cestoda

scolex

proglottids

Trematoda

Cestoda

Beef Tapeworm
Taenia saginata

Pork Tapeworm

Taenia solium

Fish Tapeworm

Diphyllobothrium latum

Trematoda

Intestinal fluke
Fasciolopsis buski

Liver fluke

Fasciola helatica

Chinese liver fluke

Clonorchis sinensis

Blood fluke

Schistosoma mansoni

S. japonicum

S. haematobium

 

BACTERIAL DISEASES

Introduction

Anatomy

Bergey's Classification

Medical Classification

Airborne

Food and Waterborne

Soil and Arthropodborne

Contact and Endogenous

Airborne

Tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Meningococcal meningitis

Neisseria meningitidis

Strep throat

Streptococcus pyogenes

Diphtheria

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Pneumoccal pneumonia

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Food and Waterborne

Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
Staphylococcus aureus

Clostridial Food Poisoning

Clostridium perfringens

Salmonellosis

Salmonella typhimurium; S. enteritidis

Cholera

Vibrio cholerae

Typhoid Fever

Salmonella typhii

Bacteria Dysentery

Shigella spps.

Botulism

Clostridium botulinum

Soil and Arthropodborne

Tetanus
Clostridium tetani

Gas Gangrene

Clostridium perfringens

C. septicum; C. novyi

Bubonic Plague

Yersinia pestis

Tularemia

Francisella tularensis

Lyme Disease

Borrelia burgdorferi

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Rickettsia rickettsii

Epidemic Typhus

Rickettsia prowasekii

Contact and Endogenous

Gonorrhea
Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Syphilis

Treponema pallidum

Leprosy

Mycobacterium leprae

Chlamydia/Nongonococcal Urethritis

Chlamydia trachomatis

Toxic Shock Syndrome

Staphylococcus aureus

 

VIRUSES

Introduction

History

Structure

Size/Shape

Replication

Prevention/treatment

Classification

Diseases

Introduction

Any agent of disease

Subatomic, non-filterable

Obligate intracellular parasites

Non-living infectious units

????

Structure

Envelope

Capsid

Genome

+/- DNA

+ DNA

+/- RNA

+ RNA

Enzymes

Size/Shape

Size

Shape

Replication

Adsorption

Penetration

Biosynthesis

Maturation

Release

Virulent vs. Temperate

Bacteriophages vs. Animal Viruses

Treatment

Host modification
modify binding sites

modify restriction enzymes

modify own DNA

Interferon

Drugs

Vaccines

Classification

Introduction

Virology Classification

Medical Classification

Pneumotropic

Dermotropic

Viscerotropic

Neurotropic

Pneumotropic Diseases

Influenza
double strand RNA

Adenovirus

 

Rhinovirus

 

Dermotropic Diseases

Chicken Pox
double stranded DNA

Measles

single stranded RNA

Mumps

single stranded RNA

Herpes Simplex

 

Small Pox

double stranded DNA

German Measles

single stranded RNA

Viscerotropic Diseases

Yellow Fever

 

Hepatitis

Type A:

Type B:

Type C/NonA-NonB:

AIDS

 

Neurotropic Diseases

Rabies

 

Polio

 

NON-SPECIFIC DEFENSES

Introduction

Non-specific defenses

Specific defenses

Categories

Barriers/filters

Circulatory system

Lymph system

Molecular defenses

Barriers

Skin

Mucous membrane

Acid pH

Fever

Eyes

Ears

Trachea

Circulatory System

Blood cells

Granulocytes

Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN)

neutrophil

basophile

eosinophile

Agranulocytes

Lymphocytes

Monocytes

Phagocytosis

Inflammation

Pus formation

Lymph System

Introduction

Structure

Processes

Molecular Defenses

Lysozyme

Interferon

Complement System

 

IMMUNOLOGY

Introduction

Specific Resistance

Immunology

Immunity

Immune System

Susceptibility

Overview

Innate Immunity

Cell-mediated Immunity (CMI)

Antibody-mediated Immunity (AMI)

Active Immunity

Passive Immunity

Antigens

Definition

Examples

Epitope/Antigenic determinant

Complete vs. Incomplete (Haptens)

Antibodies

Definition

Structure

Classes

IgG

IgM

IgA

IgE

IgD

Components

Systems

Organs

Cells

Monocytes

T-lymphocytes

helper T cells

cytotoxic T cells

B-lymphocytes

Natural Killer Cells

Cell Mediated Immunity

Function

Process

Antibody-Mediated Immunity

Function

Primary and Secondary Responses

Process

Antibody-Antigen Reactions

Sub-types

Passive AMI

Active AMI

Disorders- Hypersensitivity

Introduction

Type I- Anaphylactic Hypersensitivity

Type II- Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity

Type III- Immune Complex Hypersensitivity

Type IV- Cellular Hypersensitivity

Disorders- Immune Deficiencies

Introduction

B-cell deficiency

Thymus deficiency

Disorders- Transplants

Introduction

Rejection process

Graft types

Solutions