Dr. K's Classes:

BIOL 220 Microbiology- Majors

 
 

 

SYLLABUS

 

AZUSA PACIFIC UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY

FALL 2000

 

APU MISSION STATEMENT:

Mission and Purpose Statement: Azusa Pacific University exists as an evangelical; Christian community of discipleship and scholarship to advance the work of God in the world through liberal arts and professional programs of higher education that encourage students to develop a Christian perspective on truth.

 

DEPARTMENT MISSION STATEMENT:

The Department of Biology and chemistry exists to serve God through the integration of a Christian perspective into the disciplines of biology and chemistry and the preparation of Christian men and women to assume leadership roles in these sciences.

 

COURSE: BIOL-220 General Microbiology

PROFESSOR: Dr. Scott S. Kinnes

Office: W-08 Ext. 3362

E-Mail: skinnes@apu.edu

Website: www.apu.edu/~skinnes

Real Office Hours: Tues. 8:30 am-9:30am/Thurs. 2:00pm-3:00pm

Virtual Office Hours: TBA

Other Office Hours: By appointment

 

COURSE CONTENT:

A study of the fundamental principles and techniques of microbiology through lecture and laboratory experience. Prerequisite: Chem 111 or Chem 201

 

COURSE OBJECTIVE:

To develop an understanding of microorganisms and their impact on human life while gaining expertise in practical microbiological techniques.

 

REQUIRED READING:

Text: Microbiology: Principles and Applications; J. Black,

1999; Prentice Hall

Manual: Laoratory Exercises in Microbiology; Harley and

Prescott, 1999; WCB/McGraw-Hill

 

SUGGESTED READING: Study Guide to accompany text; Matthai and Berg

 

SUPPLEMENTAL READING: See supplemental reading list on website:

http://home.apu.edu/~skinnes/kinnes_microwebsites.htm.htm

 

COURSE REQUIREMENTS:

Grading scale: 'A' = 100-92

'A-' = 91.9-90

'B+' = 89.9-88

'B' = 87.9-82

'B-' = 81.9-80

'C+' = 79.9-78

'C' = 77.9-72

'C-' = 71.9-70

` 'D+' = 69.9-68

'D' = 67.9-62

'D-' = 61.9-60

'F' = 59.9-0

 

Graded Material: 40% 4 lecture tests

15% Comprehensive Lecture Final

18% 3 lab practicals

10% Unknown with chart & key

12% Paper/presentation

5% Lab preparation

 

NOTE: No student will receive a "C" or better course grade without achieving at

least a 70% average on the tests, final and lab practicals.

 

Papers, unknown, etc. cannot increase an "exam" average of less than 70%.

 

See "COURSE PHILOSOPHY" for other requirements.

 

COURSE PHILOSOPHY

 

This course is designed to teach you several things. In no particular order they are: biology, how to survive life after APU, and how to integrate your Christian faith with virtually everything you do. Granted, that may seem like a big statement, so let me explain what I mean.

 

MICROBIOLOGY: Hopefully, since this is a course entitled "General Microbiology" you will learn something about that subject through taking this course! This will be done through the lectures, the labs, the quizzes and exams and the papers. I assure you that everything we cover will be of value to you and you can verify this with some of my previous students.

 

This aspect of the course is to be a two-way street and will require work on your part that goes beyond the tests and papers. You will be expected to read the material prior to lecture or lab and to review those sections which you still do not understand after class. I stand ready, willing and able to help you through any difficulties that you may encounter but only after you have at least made an effort to understand it on your own.

 

LIFE AFTER APU: More importantly, perhaps, this course, like college in general, is designed to teach you how to survive after college. This includes life in graduate school, whatever job you may get and life in general.

 

1. Tests: will always include at least one essay question in which you will be required to put down in correct form a paragraph that will demonstrate your knowledge of the subject under discussion. If you omit important information or do not put the answer down in an essay format, you will lose points. Often, however, the questions will be short answers (usually lists of some type, often with short elaborations) or diagrams of something we have discussed and there will always be a vocabulary question with a list of important words for which you must furnish a short sentence type answer that completely defines the words as we discussed them. Scantrons are required for multiple choice matching, etc.

 

2. Attendance: The first three lecture absences will be ignored. After that, however, each absence will lower your final grade by four points so that an extra three absences will lower your grade one full letter. In lab, any unexcused absence will result in a drop of 10 points in your final lab grade. You are also responsible for attending the entire lab so do not make plans to leave early.

 

The lab component is an integral portion of this science course experience and the nature general studies requirement. Therefore any student missing two labs for any reason, excused or will automatically receive an "F" in the course.

 

It is your responsibility to explain your absences and to obtain all information presented during your absence. Excused absences include illnesses verified by a doctor's note, occasional absence due to extra-curricular activities and a few others as determined by me. An attendance sheet will be passed around during class for you to sign your name if you are present. Anyone caught signing another person's name will receive an "F" for the course.

 

3. Tardies: Three tardies will constitute an unexcused absence. If you are tardy be sure to see me after class to be sure that you are not counted absent. Failure to do so by the end of the period will result in an unexcused absence!!

 

4. Make-up Exams: Make-up exams will be given only in very special circumstances such as illness, verified by a doctor. No early tests will be given. All make-up tests will be given at the end of the semester on the last Monday of the week prior to finals. It is your responsibility to make arrangements with me to take the test on that day. If you fail to do so, you will get a zero for that grade. No early tests will be given.

 

5. Late Papers, etc.: NO late papers, projects, etc. will be accepted. The material is due during that day's lecture or lab period, depending on what it relates to, and not just prior to midnight of that day! No early presentations will be allowed.

 

6. Timed Tests: You will have a certain amount of time to take each test and at the end of that time all papers will be collected. It is, therefore, very important that you are not late on test days. If you have a disability of some type that prevents you from handling material at a normal rate, then please see me so that special arrangements can be made.

 

7. Cheating: If you are caught cheating on a test/paper, you will receive a zero for that test/paper. If you are caught cheating on a second test/paper, you will receive an "F" in the course. All cases of cheating will be reported to the Dean of Students. If you are suspected of cheating, I reserve the right to have you take another test on that material. If you are in doubt of what constitutes cheating, please refer to the University's Student Handbook.

 

8. Disability Statement: Any student in this course who has a disability that might prevent him or her from fully demonstrating his or her abilities should meet with an advisor in the Learning Enrichment center as soon as possible to initiate disability verification and discuss accommodations that may be necessary to ensure your full participation in the successful completion of course requirements.

 

9. Learning Enrichment Center: In an effort to assist students having difficulty in classes, the University has established an excellent Learning Enrichment Center which has become a model for Southern California schools. It is available to assist you with general and specific study programs. Unfortunately, very few students who need the help make the effort to get the help that could very well enable them to pass a course. Therefore, if any student getting a "D" or "F" on a lecture test in this class spends four hours in either group or individual tutoring sessions and their next test grade improves, the original grade will be raised by half the difference between the two grades or 5 points, whichever is higher. The LEC's records will be the only ones accepted as proof of attendance of these sessions.

 

 

FAITH AND LIFE: Finally, both by my example and the content of the course, I would like to help you learn that all aspects of your life can and must be brought under the Lordship of Jesus Christ. Too often we relegate God to those aspects of our lives that seem to have some obvious relation to Him, i.e., church activities, religion courses, etc. However, it is very important that God be involved and considered in all that you are involved in. Currently the Lord has called each of you to be students in this course and that must be your primary task over the next few weeks. God has also called you to be the best students you can possibly be and that means putting a lot of energy and effort into this course. I will attempt to teach you how God can be relevant to something that might seem as "unChristian" as microbiology throughout the course even though the author of the texts we'll be using is a strict evolutionist. You, however, must also do your part in being a responsible Christian student no matter how little you want to be taking this course!

 

TENTATIVE LECTURE SCHEDULE

 

DATE DAY TOPIC CHAPTER

Sept. 06 W Course Introduction Review 2

08 F History 1

 

11 M Micro Intro 9

13 W Prokaryotic Anatomy 4

15 F Metabolism 5 (knowledge of Ch. 2 assumed)

 

18 M Metabolism 5

20 W Metabolism 5

22 F Microbial Growth 6

 

25 M Test 1

27 W Microbial Growth 6

29 F Microbial Growth 6

 

Oct. 02 M Controls 12, 13,14

04 W Genetics 7

06 F Genetics 8

 

09 M Synbiosis 14

11 W Normal Flora 14

13 F Epidemiology 15

 

16 M Test 2

18 W Infections 14

20 F Vacation Day

 

23 M Bacteria 9

25 W Bacterial Diseases 19-24

27 F Fungi 11. 19-24

 

30 M Protozoans 11; 19-24

Nov. 01 W Helminthes 11: 19-24

03 F Test 3

 

06 M Viruses 10

08 W Viral Diseases 19-24

10 F Non-Specific Defenses 16

LAST DAY TO WITHDRAW FROM CLASS

 

13 M Immunology 17

15 W Immunology 17

17 F Immunology 17

 

20 M Immune Disorders 18

22 W Immune Disorders 18

24 F THANKSGIVING VACATION

27 M Test 4

29 W Environmental Micro. 25

Dec. 01 F Environmental Micro 25

04 M Food Microbiology 26

06 W Dairy Microbiology 26

08 F Water Microbiology 25

 

 

 

FINAL EXAM: Wed., Dec. 13, 1:00 PM to 3:00 PM

 

Laboratory Schedule

 

 

T/TH W/F Topic Lab Number

Sept. 7 8 No Lab, Review Manual pgs. 1-9

 

12 13 Culture Prep 14

14 15 Basic Techniques 15, 17, 18, 19

 

19 20 Staining 8, 9

21 22 Environmental Effects 42, 43, 44

 

26 27 Environmental Effects 20, 46

28 29 Chemical Control 47, 48

 

Oct. 3 4 Unknown Intro. 40, 41

5 6 Lab Practical

 

10 11 Unknowns 22, 24 - 37

12 13 Unknowns 22, 24-37

 

17 18 Medical Micro 65, 38, 39

19 20 Vacation Day No Lab

 

24 25 Staphyloccus 66

26 27 Streptococcus 67, 68

 

31 Nov. 1 Fungi 73, 74

2 3 Protozoans Handout

 

7 8 Multicellulars Handout

9 10 Lab Practical 2 (not including multicellulars)

 

14 15 Viruses Lab Kit

16 17 Immunology 60, 61, 64

 

21 22 Oil, N Cycle Oil kit, 76

23 24 Thanksgiving Break No Lab

 

28 29 Air and Water 51, 52

30 Dec. 1 Food and Dairy 53, 54, 55

 

5 6 Presentations

7 8 Lab Practical 3 (including multicellulars)

LAB PERFORMANCE

 

 

1. No food or drinks in the lab.

2. No bare feet.

3. Label all test tubes, petri dishes, etc. with the following information

 

Your name Media

Organism Date

 

a. Use white tape and ball point pen on glass, wax pencil on plastic.

b. Remove all labels when finished.

4. Place all glassware, cultures, pipettes, etc. in the appropriate area for

autoclaving. Dispose of nothing into the lab trash cans except regular

paper towels.

5. No horseplay in lab.

6. Keep desk top clean of all extra material.

7. Wash down desktop with 10% Clorox before and after lab.

8. Wash hands after lab.

9. Report any reagent or culture spills to me immediately.

10. Use test tube holders, tongs or asbestos gloves to handle hot glassware.

Note: Hot glass looks just like cold glass.

11. Wash out your table cloth thoroughly after lab.

12. Wear the lab coat provided at all times.

13. All long hair must be worn back in a manner to prevent contamination, etc.

14. Be sure that all cuts are bandaged or covered by gloves.

15. Females must wear gloves while performing any staining procedure.

16. Read labs before coming to class

17. Take notes, do diagrams and record dates, times, media, organisms,

incubation temps, etc.

18. Keep track of the various lab experiments.

19. Students may be present in the lab without the instructor's

presence only if:

a. they are with another person

b. they are not involved in any potentially dangerous activities-

for example: flaming, inoculating, staining, etc.

c. they are doing slide viewing, culture checking, Bergey's reading, etc..

 

Failure to abide by these rules and regulations may result in your dismissal from the class!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LAB PREPARATION

 

1. In order to give you hands-on experience in basic lab techniques and lab instruction, 5%

of your grade will be based upon a lab preparation you will do.

 

2. For each prep you are responsible for:

a. determining what must be done for each experiment;

b. locating the materials required;

c. preparing the media, gathering glassware, special chemicals, etc.;

 

3. Grades will be determined by the quality, completeness and timeliness of the preparations.

 

4. An attempt will be made to assign experiments involving equal work to each

student. As some experiments are more involved than others, some people may work on several experiments while others may only work on only one.

 

5. Throughout your preparations you will be assisted by the Microbiology lab assistant.

However, it is always your responsibility to arrange for help and to arrange your

schedule to their's. Failure to do so is not excuse for incomplete or tardy preps. Please

note that the lab techs are not your servants. You are to do the work, collect the supplies,

and clean up.

 

6. Timeline:

 

a. You must see me before meeting with the lab TA to prepare your

material or the lab TA will not allow you to complete your prep and you will receive a zero.

 

b. You must arrange for T.A. assistance one week prior to the time you meet to work on your preparation. Failure to do so will result in the lab tech doing your preparation and your receiving a zero.

 

c. You must have the prep done at least two days before the first lab using that material meets.

 

UNKNOWN IDENTIFICATION

 

1. 10% of your grade will be based upon your ability to identify an unknown bacterium correctly, using techniques explained in class.

2. As part of this lab experience you must develop, and turn in, a chart of

identifying characteristics for each of the microorganisms listed below.

3. You must then organize this information into a dichotomous key which would

allow someone else to identify an unknown microorganism using the key and

the test alone. These may be done with only minimal assistance from others

but do not copy anybody else's key or chart.

4. Grading will be done on a minimal basis for the chart and key (5% each) while your ability to identify the unknown on your first try will constitute the majority of the

grade. Each unsuccessful attempt to identify the microorganism will lower your grade 10%.

5. Due dates: Chart and Key Oct. 17, 18

Final Unknown ID Oct. 24, 25

 

DISEASE PAPER

 

1. 12% of your grade will be based upon your writing and presenting a 2-3 page paper on a

disease of your choice.

 

2. Papers are to be double-spaced and typed by the student on a computer. Students must be prepared to turn in a disk with the paper on it.

 

3. Students are to select a disease and have it approved by me. No duplicates will be allowed and they will be assigned on a first come, first serve basis. Only diseases due to microorganisms will be accepted, and once you have made your choice, no changes will be allowed. Therefore, choose wisely and thoughtfully.

 

4. Papers are to cover the following:

 

Historical Background Treatment

Causal Organism Prevention

Transmission Tie-in to class

Symptoms Comments/Opinions

Life/Cycle Progression Bibliography (not counted in page count)

 

(Do not break paper into these sections; just cover them all).

 

5. 10% will be based on college level presentation of paper under the following formula:

 

10 pts. each for spelling, glammar, references & bibliography, and

for covering the above points.

 

30 pts. for content

 

5 pts. will be subtracted for eact page, or part of a page, over or under the length requirement.

 

2% will be based on a 5-10 minute oral presentation graded by the attached sheet.

 

6. Due Dates:

 

Disease Selection: September 22

Paper Due Date: November 17

Oral Presentation: December 5, 6

 

 

ORAL PRESENTATION EVALUATION

COURSE ____________________________________

 

SPEAKER ________________________ DATE __________________

 

TOPIC __________________________ GRADE _________________

 

 

POINTS POSSIBLE POINTS EARNED

I. CONTENT

A. Introduction (Preview) 5 ______________

 

B. Body 10 ______________

 

C. Conclusion (Review) 5 ______________

 

D. Logical development 5 ______________

 

E. Clarity 5 ______________

 

F. Apparent knowledge/

understanding of topic 5 ______________

 

G. Length (Time: _______) 10 ______________

 

H. Ability to answer questions 5 ______________

 

II. DELIVERY

A. Posture/Poise 5 ______________

 

B. Use of notes not obvious 5 ______________

 

C. Eye contact with audience 5 ______________

 

D. Use of fillers (ahas, ums, etc.) 5 ______________

 

III. VISUAL AIDS

Type(s): Slides, overheads, whilteboard, PowerPoint, handouts, other (Circle ones used)

 

A. Visual clarity 5 ______________

 

B. Supports presentation 5 ______________

 

C. Relevance 5 ______________

 

D. Evidence of preparation 5 ______________

 

IV. MISCELLANEOUS

A Originality/Style 5 ______________

 

B. Overall impact 5 ______________

 

TOTAL 100 ______________

 

 

NOTE TO COMMENTORS: Please evaluate the presenter on each of the above areas according to

to how well they match the optimum in each category (points possible).

 

CLASS NOTES

 

BIOL 320 MICROBIOLOGY

Fall 1997

Dr. Scott S. Kinnes

Azusa Pacific University

 

 

History

Three questions had to be answered

How to see them

Where they came from

What caused diseases

How to see them

Hooke

Leeuwenhoek

Where they came from

Two theories

spontaneous generation

life from life

Redi

Pasteur

What causes diseases?

God

Sin

gods

Stars

Balance

Germs

What causes diseases?

Berkeley and Phytophthora infestans

Koch and Bacillus anthracis

Koch's Postulates

Constant association

Isolate, culture, identify

Infect healthy host, it gets sick

Reisolate, reculture, reidentify

 

METABOLISM

Intro

Metabolism

Catabolism

Anabolism

Where in prokaryotes?

Enzymes

Energy

cold cash

checks

CD's

Carbohydrates

Functions

Structure review

Anabolism

Photosynthesis

Chemosynthesis

Catabolism

Fermentation

Aerobic respiration

Anaerobic respiration

Proteins

Functions

Structure Review

Anabolism

Amino Acids

Proteins: see Genetics section

Catabolism

Proteins

Nucleic Acids

Functions

Structure review

Anabolism

see Genetics section

Lipids

Lipid introduction

Fats: function

Fats: structure

Fats: anabolism

Fats: catabolism

Connections

Overall

Carbohydrates and fats

Carbohydrates and amino acids

 

CELL ANATOMY

Introduction

Cell

Prokaryotic cell

Eukaryotic cell

Similarities

Differences

Shape

Function of cell wall

May change

Rod

Bacillus, Bacilli

Sphere

Coccus, Cocci

Spiral

Spirillum, Spirilla

Cell Wall

Function

Structure

Gram positive vs. Gram negative

Cell Membrane

Function

Structure

Biochemical pathways

Nuclear Region

Function

Structure

Chromosome

PRibosomes

Function

Structure

Sedimentation constant

Inclusions

Function

Structure

Endospore

Function

Structure

Formation

Flagellum

Function

Structure

Comparison with eukaryotic flagellum

External features

Fimbriae

Pili

Capsule

Slime Layer

 

MICROBIAL GROWTH

 

Introduction

Growth in multicellular organisms

Growth in unicellular organisms

Population growth

exponential growth

Generation time

Growth Curve

Lag Phase

Exponential/Log Phase

Stationary Phase

Death/Decline Phase

Measuring Growth

Direct count

Hemocytometer chamber

Viable Count

Plate Count

Most-probable number

Measuring mass

Limits to Growth:

Nutrients

Essential elements

macronutrients

micronutrients

Non-essential elements

Growth factor analogs

Organisms

Competetion

intraspecific

interspecific

Predation

Mutualism

Commensalism

Parasitism

Allelopathy

Environmental Effects

Temperature

Moisture

pH

Oxygen

Radiation

 

CONTROLS

Introduction

Why?

Physical

Chemical

Physical

Temperature

Oxygen

Radiation

Moisture

Chemical Introduction

Definition

Static

Cidal

non-lytic

lytic

Action seen

Disinfectants and Antiseptics

Definitions

Disinfectant

Antiseptic

Similarities

Differences

Groups

Antibiotics

Definition

Action

Groups

Others

Antimetabolites/ Growth Factor Analogs

Antifungal agents

Antiviral agents

Antiprotozoan agents

Antihelminthic agents

 

GENETICS

DEFINITIONS

Genome

Genotype

Phenotype

Strain

Clone

Genetic mantra

DNA

Structure

Replication

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic

RNA

Structure

Types

Transcription

PROTEINS

Structure

Codon/Amino Acid Key

Translation

CHANGING THE GENOME

Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes

Mutations

Genetic Recombinations

MUTATIONS CHANGING THE GENOME

Definition

Wild type vs. Mutant

Causes

Mutagenesis vs. Carcinogenesis

RECOMBINATIONS CHANGING THE GENOME

Conjugation

Transduction

Transformation

 

 

NORMAL FLORA

 

Introduction

Definition

Symbiosis

MICRO to MICRO

Lichens

Bacteria and Algae

Bacteria and Virus

MICRO to PLANT

Rhizosphere

Phyllosphere

Mycorrhizae

Nitrogen nodules

MICRO to ANIMALS

Introduction

Skin

Intestinal Tract

Respiratory Tract

Urogenital Tract

Germ free animals

 

 

 

EPIDEMIOLOGY

Introduction

Definition: Transmission of infectious diseases in populations

Elaboration:

communicable

contagious

Reservoirs

Definition

Part of lifecycle?

Normal habitat?

Examples:

Living

hosts vs carriers

Dead

Transmission

Definition

Relation to affected body part

Direct

Indirect

vectors

vehicles

Occurance in Population

Introduction

Sporadic

Endemic

Epidemic

common source

propagated

Pandemic

Control

Against reservoir

Against transmission

 

 

INFECTIONS

Definitions

Introduction

Pathogen, et al.

Host, et al.

Environment

Disease

Infection

Pathogenicity

Virulence

Classes of Diseases

Inherited

Congenital

Degenerative

Nutritional deficiency

Endocrine

Mental

Immunological

Neoplastic

Iatrogenic

Idiopathic

Clinical Stages of Disease

Infection

Incubation

Prodromal

Invasive/Acme

Decline/Defervesence

Convalescence

Process

Entry

Establishment

Spread

Types of Infectious Diseases

Acute

Chronic

Subacute

Latent

Local infection

Focal infection

Systemic infection

Local Infection

Focal Infection

Systemic Infection

Septicemia

Bacteremia

Viremia

Sapremia

Fungimia

Enzymes Involved

Hyaluronidase

Collagenase

Streptokinase

Coagulase

Bacterial Toxins

Exotoxins

Enterotoxins

Endotoxins

 

 

FUNGI

Introduction

Heterotrophic, saprotrophic

Eukaryotic

Unicellular, multicellular?

STRUCTURE

Unicellular

Hyphae

septate

aseptate

Mycelium

Fruiting bodies

Reproduction

Unicellular

budding

Filamentous

asexual

sexual

Taxonomy

Introduction

Division Eumycophyta

Class Oomycetes

Class Zygomycetes

Class Ascomycetes

Class Basidiomycetes

Class Deuteromycetes

Yeast Infection

Candida albicans

Moniliasis

Vulvovaginitis

Thrush

Dematophytes

Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton

Athletes foot, groin itch, ringworm

Cryptococcosis

Cryptococcus neoformans

 

 

PROTOZOANS

Introduction

Eukaryotes

Unicellular

Kingdom Protista

Associated with water

Structure

Cyst

Trophozoite

Taxonomy I

Sarcodina
pseudopodia

Amoeba

Mastigophora

flagella

Giardia

Ciliophora

cilia

Paramecium

Sporaozoan/Apicomplexa

non-motile, spore forming, complex cycles

Plasmodium

Apicomplexan

Malaria
Plasmodium spps.

Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasma gondii

Sarcodina

Amoebiasis
Entamoeba histolytica

Cryptosporidiosis

Cryptosporidium coccidi

Pneumocystosis- PCP

Pneumocystis carinii

Mastigophora

Giardiasis
Giardia lamblia

Trichomoniasis

Trichmonas vaginalis

Ciliophora

Balantidiasis
Balantidium coli

 

 

MULTICELLULAR PARASITES

 

INTRODUCTION

Animal Kingdom

Multicellular

Eukaryotic

Heterotrophic

Complex lifecycles

intermediate host

definitive host

NEMATHELMINTHES: Roundworms

Pinworm
Enterobius vermicularis

Roundorm disease

Ascaris lumbricoides

Trichinosis

Trichinella spiralis

PLATYHELMINTHES: Flatworms- Introduction

Classes

Cestoda- tapeworms

Trematoda- flukes

Structure

Cestoda

scolex

proglottids

Trematoda

Cestoda

Beef Tapeworm
Taenia saginata

Pork Tapeworm

Taenia solium

Fish Tapeworm

Diphyllobothrium latum

Trematoda

Intestinal fluke
Fasciolopsis buski

Liver fluke

Fasciola helatica

Chinese liver fluke

Clonorchis sinensis

Blood fluke

Schistosoma mansoni

S. japonicum

S. haematobium

 

 

BACTERIA

 

Taxonomy

Introduction

Taxonomy review

Criteria for classification

Divisions

Gracilicutes

Firmicutes

Tenericutes

Mendosicutes

Spirochetes

Introduction

Lyme Disease

Borrelia burgdorferi

Relapsing Fever

Borrelia recurrentis

Syphilis

Treponema pallidum

Aerobic/Microaerophilic, Motile, Helical/Vibroid, Gram -

Introduction

Ulcers

Helicobacter pylori

Diarrhea

Campylobacter spps.

Gram - Aerobic Rods and Cocci

Introduction

Urinary tract and burn infections

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Legionnaires disease

Legionella pneumophila

Gonorrhea

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Bacteria meningitis

Neisseria meningitidis

Facultatively Anaerobic Gram - Rods

Introduction

Enterics

Bubonic Plague

Yersinia pestis

Cholera

Vibrio cholerae

Sore throat

Haemophilus influenzae

Anaerobic Gram - Rods

Introduction

Appendicits

Bacteroides fragilis

Anaerobic Gram - Cocci

Introduction

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Rickettsia rickettsii

Typhus Fever

Rickettsia

Chlamydia

Chlamydia trachomatis

Respiratory tract infections

C. psittaci and C. pneumoniae

Mycoplasmas

Introduction

Primary Atypical Pneumonia

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Gram + Cocci

Introduction

Staphylococcus spps.

Food poisonings: S. aureus

Toxic Shock Syndrome: S. aureus

Streptococcus spps.

Strep throat: S. pyogenes

Scarlet Fever, Rheumatic Fever

Endospore-forming Gram + Rods and Cocci

Introduction

Botulism

Clostridium botulinum

Tetnus

C. tetani

Gas Gangrene

C. perfringens

Irregular Nonsporing Gram + Rods

Introduction

Diphtheria

Corynebacteria diphtheriae

Mycobacteria

Introduction

Tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Leprosy/Hansen's Disease

M. leprae

 

VIRUSES

 

Introduction

History

Structure

Size/Shape

Replication

Prevention/treatment

Classification

Diseases

History

Any agent of disease

Subatomic, non-filterable

Obligate intracellular parasites

Non-living infectious units

????

Structure

Envelope

Capsid

Genome

+/- DNA

+ DNA

+/- RNA

+ RNA

Enzymes

Size/Shape

pg. 273

Size

Shape

Replication

Adsorption

Penetration

Biosynthesis

Maturation

Release

Virulent vs. Temperate

Bacteriophages vs. Animal Viruses

Treatment

Host modification

modify binding sites

modify restriction enzymes

modify own DNA

Interferon

Drugs

Vaccines

Classification

Introduction

Nucleic acid classification

pg. 276

Family

Genus

Species

Picornavirdae

Introduction

Polio

Common Cold

Hepatitis A

Togaviridae

Introduction

Rubella

Flaviviridae

Introduction

Yellow Fever

Retroviridae

Introduction

AIDS

Paramyxoviridae

Introduction

Measles

Rhabdoviridae

Introduction

Rabies

Orthomyxoviridae

Introduction

Influenza

Filoviridae

Introduction

Ebola

Bunyaviridae

Introduction

Respiratory distress

Hemorrhagic fevers

Reoviridae

Introduction

Respiratory infections

Gastrointestinal infections

Adenoviridae

Introduction

Respiratory infections

Herpesviridae

Introduction

Herpes Simplex

Chickenpox

Shingles

Poxviridae

Introduction

Small pox

Papovaviridae

Introduction

Warts

Hepadnaviridae

Introduction

Hepatitis B

Parvoviridae

Introduction

Fifth Disease

 

NON-SPECIFIC DEFENSES

Introduction

Non-specific defenses

Specific defenses

Categories

Barriers/filters

Circulatory system

Lymph system

Molecular defenses

Barriers

Skin

Mucous membrane

Acid pH

Fever

Eyes

Ears

Trachea

Circulatory System

Blood cells

Granulocytes

Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN)

neutrophil

basophile

eosinophile

Agranulocytes

Lymphocytes

Monocytes

Phagocytosis

Inflammation

Pus formation

Lymph System

Introduction

Structure

Processes

Molecular Defenses

Lysozyme

Interferon

Complement System

 

IMMUNOLOGY

Introduction

Specific Resistance

Immunology

Immunity

Immune System

Susceptibility

Overview

Innate Immunity

Cell-mediated Immunity (CMI)

Antibody-mediated Immunity (AMI)

Active Immunity

Passive Immunity

Antigens

Definition

Examples

Epitope/Antigenic determinant

Complete vs. Incomplete (Haptens)

Antibodies

Definition

Structure

Classes

IgG

IgM

IgA

IgE

IgD

Components

Systems

Organs

Cells

Monocytes

T-lymphocytes

helper T cells

cytotoxic T cells

B-lymphocytes

Natural Killer Cells

Cell Mediated Immunity

Function

Process

Antibody-Mediated Immunity

Function

Primary and Secondary Responses

Process

Antibody-Antigen Reactions

Sub-types

Passive AMI

Active AMI

Disorders- Hypersensitivity

Introduction

Type I- Anaphylactic Hypersensitivity

Type II- Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity

Type III- Immune Complex Hypersensitivity

Type IV- Cellular Hypersensitivity

Disorders- Immune Deficiencies

Introduction

B-cell deficiency

Thymus deficiency

Disorders- Transplants

Introduction

Rejection process

Graft types

Solutions

 

ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY

Introduction

Microenvironments

Diseases

Soil Formation

Biogeochemical cycles

Acidification

Biodegradation

Microenvironments

Definition

Involving just micros

In a macro world

Inside us

Diseases

Basic definition

External factors

human diseases

plant disease

Internal factors

Soil Formation

Physical weathering

Chemical weathering

Organic matter contribution

Biogeochemical Cycles

Introduction

Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen Fixation

Rhizobium, Clostridium, Azotobacter, Nostoc

Nitrification

Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter

Denitrification

Pseudomonas, Thiobacillus, Micrococcus

Acidification

Introduction

Acid Mine Drainage

Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

Microbial Leaching

Acid Rain Damage

Biodegradation

Introduction

General Principles

Oil

Pesticide

 

 

FOOD & DAIRY MICROBIOLOGY

Introduction

Food

Dairy

Food Spoilage

Water

pH

Physical Structure

Oxygen

Temperature

Categories

Chemistry

Food Preservation

Heat

Cold

Drying

Osmotic Pressure

Chemicals

Radiation

Food Contamination

Grains

Fruits and vegetables

Meats

Miscellaneous

Beneficial Aspects of Foods

Pickled foods

Fermented beverages

Dairy Composition

87% Water

5% Carbohydrates- lactose

4% Lipids- butterfats

2.5% Protein

Casein = color

Lactoalbumin = whey

Dairy Preservation

Pasteurization

History

LTLT

HTST

Bacteria levels

Dairy Spoilage

Sour Curd

Sweet Curd

Stormy Fermentation

Milk Borne Diseases

Bovine TB
Mycobacterium bovis

Brucellosis

Brucella abortus

Q Fever

Coxiella burnetti

Beneficial Aspects for Milk

Buttermilk and sour cream

Yogurt

Acidophilus Milk

Cheese

unripened

ripened