Dr. K's Classes:

BIOL 112 General Biology II

 
 

SYLLABUS

SPRING 1998

 

"Do not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but be

transformed by the renewing of your mind." Romans 12:2a

 

PREPARED BY: Dr. Scott S. Kinnes, Office W-08, ext. 3362. Set office hours - Th 1:30-3:30 pm. Other office hours by appointments.

COURSE: 51-112 General Biology II

COURSE CONTENT: A continuation of General Biology I. Topics covered include

evolution, ecology, plant biology and a survey of the five kingdoms of life.

COURSE OBJECTIVE: To prepare the major for upper level biology courses, the GRE and the MCAT by creating a firm foundation in biology and to begin training students in basic scientific methodologies and skills.

REQUIRED READING:

Text: Biology, McFadden and Keeton, 1995

Lab Manual: Biology Laboratory Manual, S. Mader, 1996

Supplemental: Biology Through the Eyes of Faith, R. Wright, 1989

A Short Guide to Writing About Biology, Pechenik, 1997

A Life Science Lexicon, W. N. Marchurk, 1992

Provided: Department of Biology and Chemistry Student Handbook, Kinnes, 1997

Dr. K's Handy Dandy Guide to Writing, Kinnes, 1997

 

SUGGESTED READING: Study Guide to Accompany Biology Biological Science, McFadden, 1993

 

COURSE REQUIREMENTS:

1. Graded Material

A. Tests 4 Lecture Tests = 32%

1 Final Exam = 15%

2 Lab Practicals = 20%

Each lecture test and lab practical will cover only the new material since the last test. The final exam will be comprehensive. However, essay questions on lecture tests may require, include or be based upon past knowledge.

 

B. Lab Work 10%

C. Vocabulary Quizzes 5%

D. Lab Project 18%

 

2. Non-Graded Material

a. Conferences-

(1) All students must meet with the professor for a general conference sometime before February 28, 1997. Failure to do so will lower the course grade five points.

 

(2) Any student receiving a grade below 70% on any test must meet with the

professor within two weeks of that test. Students will be expected to bring their test with them. Failure to do so will lower the course grade five points.

 

b. Lunch-

All students will be expected to attend at least one of the 'to be arranged' lunches with the professor. Failure to do so will lower the course grade five points.

 

3. Minimum Grade Expectation

A. No student will receive a "C" or better course grade without achieving at

least a 70% average on the four lecture tests, one final exam and the two lab practicals. Vocabulary quizzes, projects and lab work cannot increase an "exam" average of less than 70%.

 

B. Any student receiving a "D" or "F" will not be allowed to move on to the next level of courses in the biology sequence without further basic science preparation.

 

4. Other Requirements - see individual attached sheets for details.

 

5. All grading - the grading scale is as follows:

 

Grading Scale: 'A' = 100-92

'A-' = 91.9-90

'B+' = 89.9-88

'B' = 87.9-82

'B-' = 81.9-80

'C+' = 79.9-78

'C' = 77.9-72

'C-' = 71.9-70

'D+' = 69.9-68

'D' = 67.9-62

'D-' = 61.9-60

'F' = 59.9-0

COURSE PHILOSOPHY

 

This course is designed to teach you several things. In no particular order they are: biology, how to survive life after APU, and how to integrate your Christian faith with virtually everything you do. Granted, that may seem like a big statement, so let me explain what I mean.

 

GENERAL BIOLOGY: Hopefully, since this is a course entitled "General Biology II", you will learn something about that subject through taking this course! This will be done through the lectures, the labs, the quizzes and exams and the project. This aspect of the course is to be a two-way street and will require work on your part that goes beyond the tests and papers. You will be expected to read the material prior to lecture or lab and to review those sections which you still do not understand after class. I stand ready, willing and able to help you through any difficulties that you may encounter but only after you have at least made an effort to understand it on your own. This is particularly important in lab.

 

 

LIFE AFTER APU: More importantly, perhaps, this course, like college in general, is designed to teach you how to survive after college. This includes life in graduate school, whatever job you may get and life in general.

 

1. Tests: This will begin with the quizzes, exams and practicals themselves.

In lecture most tests will be 40-60% "scantron"-type questions. However, tests will usually include essay type questions in which the questions will require you to put down in correct form a paragraph that will demonstrate your knowledge of the subject under discussion. If you omit important information, do not put the answer down in an essay format or just regurgitate everything on the subject without applying it to the question, or you will lose points. Often, however, the questions will be short answers (usually lists of some type, often with short elaboration's), diagrams of something we have discussed or a vocabulary question with a list of important words for which you must furnish a short sentence type answer that completely defines the words as we discussed them.

 

2. Attendance: School policy is that "excessive absences will affect (sic) the student's

final grade" (Faculty Handbook). As I have noticed a definite correlation between grades and attendance, I will lower your final grade for excessive absences. The first three lecture absences will be ignored. After that, however, each absence will lower your final grade by four points so that an extra three absences will lower your grade one full letter. In lab, youwill be allowed no unexcused absences. Any unexcused absence will result in a drop of 10 points in your final lab grade. You are also responsible for attending the entire lab so do not make plans to leave early. I will take attendance at the end of lab and if you are not present at that time, you will be counted absent.

 

It is your responsibility to explain your absences and to obtain all information presented during your absence. Excused absences include illnesses verified by a doctor's note and occasional absence due to approved extra-curricular activities. An attendance sheet will be passed around during class for you to sign your name if you are present. Anyone caught signing another person's name will receive an "F" for the course.

 

3. Tardies: Just as important as attending class is coming on time; again, this is important

in real life. Three tardies will constitute an unexcused absence. If you are tardy, be sure to see me after class to be sure that you are not counted absent. Failure to do so by the end of the period will result in an unexcused absence!!

 

4. Make-up Exams: Make-up exams will be given only in very special circumstances such as

illness, verified by a doctor. Such things as leaving early for a break, not having time to study, etc. will not be allowed and you will get a zero for that grade. In any case, please try and contact me or my secretary (ext. 3840) beforehand and you must contact me within a week of missing a test to explain your absence and get approval for a make-up exam. Failure to do so will prevent you from being able to take a make-up exam. In any case, all make-up tests will be given at the end of the semester on Monday, April 20. No early exams or quizzes will be allowed so it is your responsibility to make arrangements with me to take the test on that day, at least one week in advance. If you fail to do so, you will get a zero for that grade.

 

5. Late Papers, etc.: If you fail to turn in any paper, project, etc. on time, it will

still be accepted during the next seven days but your grade will be lowered ten points for each day it is late. Nothing will be accepted after a week past the due date. The material is due at the beginning of that day's lecture or lab period, depending on what it relates to.

 

6. Timed Tests: All tests in this course will be timed. You will have a certain

amount of time to take each test and at the end of that time all papers will be collected. It is, therefore, very important that you are not late on test days. If you have a disability of some type that prevents you from handling material at a normal rate, then please see me so that special arrangements can be made.

 

7. Cheating: If you are caught cheating on a test, you will receive a zero for that test.

If you are caught cheating on a second test, you will receive an "F" in the course. If you are suspected of cheating, I reserve the right to have you take another test on that material. One of the most frequent types of cheating at the college level is plagiarism which will be treated as any other type of cheating. If you are in doubt as to what constitutes plagiarism, please see me before writing any papers for this class or consult your APU student handbook. All such incidences will be reported to the Dean of Students.

 

8. Learning Enrichment Center: In an effort to assist students having difficulty in classes,

the University has established an excellent Learning Enrichment Center which has become a model for Southern California schools. It is available to assist you with general and specific study problems. In addition, the Media Center, located in the basement of the library, has videos,a laser disk and computer program that is useful in reviewing many aspects of this course.To encourage students to make use of this facility, any student receiving a "D" or "F" on any of the first three lecture tests can raise that test grade by attending four hours of tutoring (individual, or group). This four hours must occur prior to the next test. If this is done, the "D" or "F" grade will be raised by five points or by half the difference between the two tests, whichever is higher. Only the LEC's attendance records will be accepted so be sure your presence is recorded.

 

FAITH AND LIFE: Finally, both by my example and the content of the course, I would like to help you learn that all aspects of your life can and must be brought under the Lordship of Jesus Christ. Too often we relegate God to those aspects of our lives that seem to have some obvious relation to Him, (i.e., church activities, religion courses, etc.). However, it is very important that God be involved and considered in all the things in which you are involved. Currently the Lord has called each of you to be students and that must be your primary task over the next few months. God has also called you to be the best students you can possibly be and that means putting a lot of energy and effort into this course.

TENTATIVE GENERAL BIOLOGY II LECTURE SCHEDULE

 

DAY DATE CHAPTER (WRIGHT) TOPIC

M JAN. 12 NONE COURSE INTRODUCTION

W 14 36 ORIGIN OF LIFE THEORIES

F 16 NONE GOD, DARWIN AND DINOSAURS

M 19 HOLIDAY

W 21 (5,6) CREATIONISM & EVOLUTION PARADIGMS

F 23 36, APPENDIX 3 GEOLOGICAL TIME SCALE

M 26 36 FOSSIL RECORD

W 28 31 EVOLUTIONARY MECHANISMS

F 30 31 NATURAL SELECTION AND SPECIATION

 

M FEB. 2 31, 32 ADAPTIVE RADIATION & MACROEVOLUTION

W 3 32 GRADUALISM, PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM

F 4 32 PHYLOGENY

M 9 TEST I

W 11 43 EVOLUTION OF PRIMATES

F 13 HOLIDAY

M 16 36, APPENDIX 4 TAXONOMY AND KINGDOMS

W 18 (9, 12) STEWARDSHIP ECOLOGY

F 20 33 ECOLOGY BASICS

M 23 33 POPULATION DYNAMICS

W 25 COMMON DAY OF LEARNING

F. 27 33 POPULATION GROWTH, REGULATION

 

M MAR. 2 33 COMMUNITY STRUCTURE, SUCCESSION

W 4 34 ENERGY FLOW, TROPHIC LEVELS

F 6 34 BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES

M 9 TEST II

W 11 34 CLIMATOLOGY & GLOBAL IMPLICATIONS

F 13 34 ECOSYSTEMS & BIOMES

M 16 34 MAN'S IMPACT

W 18 15 PLANT INTRODUCTION

F 20 15 ROOT STRUCTURE

LAST DAY TO WITHDRAW

M 23 STEM STRUCTURE

W 25 STEM STRUCTURE

F 27 LEAF STRUCTURE

M 30 19 TEST III

 

W APR. 1 19, 22 WATER MOVEMENT

F 3 23, 24 PLANT GROWTH

M 7 EASTER BREAK

W 9

F 11

M 13 23 PLANT HORMONES

W 15 23 PLANT HORMONES

F 17 24 PHOTOPERIODISM

M 20 39 LOWER PLANT TAXONOMY

W 22 39 HIGHER PLANT TAXONOMY

F 24 TEST IV

FINAL EXAM: 9:40 a.m.,WEDNESDAY, APRIL 29, 1997

 

TENTATIVE GENERAL BIOLOGY II LAB SCHEDULE

WEEK OF: EXERCISES TOPICS

 

JAN. 12 PECHENIK TEXT RESEARCH PROJECT

19 HOLIDAY

26 11, 12 HARDY WEINBERG THEORY

 

FEB. 2 34 ECOLOGY FIELD TRIP - BIOMES

9 None ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

16 33, 35 SYMBIOSIS, POLLUTION

23 14 (TEXT CH. 37, 38) MONERA AND PROTISTA

 

MAR.2 14 (TEXT CH. 40) LAB PRAC. I, FUNGI

9 15, 16 (TEXT CH. 39) PLANT VARIETY

16 20, 23 (TEXT CH. 39) PLANT STRUCTURE

23 21, 22 PLANT BEHAVIOR

30 17, 18, 19 (TEXT CH. 41) INVERTEBRATES

 

APR. 6 EASTER BREAK

13 19 (TEXT CH. 42) VERTEBRATES

20 LAB PRAC. II

 

LAB WORK

 

ASSIGNMENT: 10% of your final grade will be based on your correctly completing each lab assignment, writing up your results and discussion sectionsand other assignments, quizzes, etc.

 

PURPOSE: To develop lab skills, the ability to carefully follow instructions and conduct experiments and to write-up your results correctly.

 

REQUIREMENTS: Complete each experiment/exercise correctly and write-up each exercise according to the individual exercise requirements or instructions provided.

by professor.

 

GRADING: Based on your correctly, not necessarily successfully, completing each exercise and the quality and completeness of your write-ups.

 

DUE DATES: The next week lab period after an exercise. The manual will be

examined in detail and graded on April 22th.

 

WARNING: Any student seen copying material from another student will

receive a 'O' on this portion of the course grade!!

 

VOCABULARY QUIZZES

 

ASSIGNMENT: 5% of your final grade will be based upon your preparing for and taking quizzes from selected sections of the A Life Science Lexicon.

 

PURPOSE: To develop a working scientific vocabulary to serve as a foundation for this and future courses.

 

REQUIREMENTS: Weekly quizzes, according to the following schedule, on various sections of your life science lexicon.

 

GRADING: Two quizzes will be dropped, either missed ones or your lowest ones. Therefore, no makeup quizzes or early quizzes will be allowed.

 

Your grade will be based on an average from your best eleven quizzes.

 

SCHEDULE: Quizzes will be held at the beginning of the first day of lecture of the following weeks. Failure to be present at that time will result in a zero for that quiz.

VOCAB QUIZ

WEEK OF:

Jan. 19 Root/Prefix/Suffix A

26 Root/Prefix/Suffix B,C

Feb. 2 Root/Prefix/Suffix D,E,F

9 Root/Prefix/Suffix G,H,I

16 Root/Prefix/Suffix J,K,L,M

23 Root/Prefix/Suffix N,O

Mar. 2 Root/Prefix/Suffix P

9 Root/Prefix/Suffix Q,R,S

16 Root/Prefix/Suffix T,U,V,X,Y,Z

23 Shape

Apr. 30 Colors and Sizes

13 Direction and position

20 Number and quantity

Exponential notation

 

 

NOTE: Each quiz will have a list of "words" of which you will choose any ten to define.

 

RESEARCH PROJECT

 

ASSIGNMENT: 18% of your final grade will be based on your researching, conducting and writing up a research project the class will perform.

 

PURPOSE: Besides further developing writing skills, this project is designed to familiarize you with performing literature searches, using libraries and computer searches, designing a project and in general, teaching you procedures scientists follow to prepare, perform and present a research project. Above all it is designed to make you observe and think!

 

REQUIREMENTS:

Part I: Literature Search - 3% of this grade will be based on your performing an electronic search and a personal literature search. This will require you to hand in a copy of your DIALOG search and bibliography cards for at least 15 sources of your own finding.

Part II: Rough Draft - 5% of this grade will be based upon your handing in a 3-5 page rough draft of your introduction and materials and methods sections.

 

Part III: Project Write-up - 10% of this grade will based on your writing an 8-10 page scientific paper at the completion of your project. Details will be given in class. Successful participation and conduction of your experiment will also be included.

 

GRADING: Will be based on-

Part I: The quality, quantity, relevance and originality of your sources and the format of each reference. These must deal with your section of the project, be used by you in writing your paper and include notes indicating you've looked at the reference. At least fifteen must be turned in and over half must be used in the final paper. Presence of electronic report.

 

Part II: Quality and completeness of your first two sections.

 

Part III: Fulfilling requirements:

Length

Neatness and freedom from typographical errors

Spelling

Grammar

Following scientific rules of writing (Pechenik's text will be the standard)

Content

Accompanying figures

At least twenty references must be in Bibliography and paper

Paper must be written and typed by the student on a computer.

Discs must be turned in.

 

DUE DATES: In lecture-

Part I: Feb. 16

Part II: Mar. 16 - Rough draft of Introduction & Materials and Methods sections due.

Part III: Apr. 13- Final draft

 

If any portion of the project is turned in late, your grade on that section will be lowered one letter grade for each day it is late. Nothing will be accepted after one week.

 

Electronic search must be conducted at APU.

Only the Harvard Method of citing sources and the bibliography method used in

Pechenik's text will be accepted.

 

 

PHOTOS

 

 

CLASS NOTES

BIOL 112 GENERAL BIOLOGY II

Spring 1998

Dr. Scott S. Kinnes

Azusa Pacific University

COURSE INTRODUCTION:
Course content
Course objectives
Texts
Requirements
Tests
Vocabulary quizzes
Pop quizzes
Lab project
Philosophy
Verses:
Romans 12:1-8
I Peter 1:14-15
Phillippians 3:20-21
Job 28:5-6
II Corinthians 3:18
Spiritually
Academically
Application

 

ORIGINS

Basic Premises I

Bible is:

ultimate authority

ultimate truth

hard to understand sometimes

Bible is not:

science text

easy to understand

Basic Premises II

Origins is not that big a deal

It does affect a lot

It is not only thing Christian science should study: ie. Cal's story

Bible does not say "Believe in a 7 day creation and thou shalt be saved"

Basic Premises III

There are options and we will discuss them

Microevolution vs Macroevolution

God did it

Had to be involved at several points

Hebrew "Bara"

Adam and Eve were real people

Scientific Creationism

"Yom" in Genesis 1 means a 24 hour period of time

God literally did it in six literal days

This is the point of view of ICR, et. al

Basic science

Weak points

Middle of the Road Theories

Gap, Ruin, Reconstruction

Framework

Revelation Day

Day-Age/Theistic Evolution

Pure Evolution I

Scientific Revolutions

Geocentric to Heliocentric

Catastrophism to Uniformitarianism

Creationism to Evolutionism

Long periods of time

Microevolution leading to Macroevolution

Pure Evolution II

Big Bang

Cosmic Time

Geologic Time

Geologic Time Scale

Eras

Epochs

Periods

Pure Evolution III

Early earth atmosphere

Plate tectonics

Continental drift

Chemical evolution

Early biological evolution

Old earth gives time for micro to lead to macro

Microevolution I

Gene Pool

Hardy-Weinberg Law

1 = p2 + 2pq + q2

Five conditions must be met

If not...

Microevolution II

Natural Selection:

excess progeny

variability

inheritability

differential adaptiveness

differential reproduction

Three types of selection

Microevolution III

Adaption

Fitness

Coevolution

Symbiosis

Speciation

Micro or Macro Evolution??

Types:

Phyletic evolution

Branching evolution

Geographical isolation

four factors

Reproduction isolation

Mechanisms pg. 709-712

Macroevolution I

Background

Adaptive Radiation

Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium

Phylogeny

Macroevolution II

Homologous vs. Analogous

Patterns of Evolution

Divergent

Parallel

Convergent

Macroevolution III

Fossil record

Embryology

Biochemical/Molecular

Evolution of Primates

Pure evolution and macroevolution

Most controversial aspect

What Darwin did not say

Prosimians to primates: pg. 982

Hominoids to hominids: pg. 984

Hominids to Homo sapiens sapiens: pg. 988

 

TAXONOMY

History

Aristotle

Ray

species

Linnaeus

binomial name

added class, order, genus

Modern Day

Added

Kingdom

Phylum/Division

Family

Based on assumed evolutionary phylogeny

Classification Today

Kingdom

Phyla/Division

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

Kingdoms

History

Today?

Archaebacteria

Eubacteria

Protista

Fungi

Plantae

Animalia

Nomenclature Rules

Each organism has a unique name

Name is universal

Name should remain the same

Genus capped, species not

Binomial name

italicized when typed

underlined when written

 

ECOLOGY

Introduction

Definition

oikos

ology

Why should we not care?

Why should we care?

Various views

A Christian View

Basis: Our relation to God

Infinite

Personal

Stewardship basics:

Steward?

Examples

Stewards of what?

Stewardship Ecology

Stewardship Ecology I

God created it

Gen. 1:1; John 1:3

God owns it

I Cor. 10:26; Ps. 5:10-11

God created it good

Gen. 1:31

Stewardship Ecology II

Part of that goodness is man's place

Gen. 1:28

"kabash" - to subdue

"radah" - to rule over

Gen. 2:8,15

"shamar" - keep: Gen. 4:9, Ps. 23:1

"abad"- serve: Josh. 24:15

Stewardship Ecology III

Man's fall affected all

Gen. 3:17, Rom. 8:20-22

Jesus Christ came to save all: John 3:16

time, people, everything

Universe still glorifies God

Ps. 19: 1-6, Acts 14:17

Stewardship Ecology IV

Universe still leads to God

Rom. 1:20, Ps. 19

God still sustains it and loves it

Col. 1:16-17, Heb. 1:3, Acts 14:17

Lots of specifics

Basics I

Heirarchy:

Individual

Population

Community

Ecosystem

Biome

Biosphere

Basics II

Ecosystem is primary unit of description

All share four components

abiotics

producers

consumers

decomposers

Ecological equivelents

Population Dynamics I

Basic unit of study

Distribution

uniform

random

clumped

Density

Population Dynamics II

Mortality

Natality

Survivorship curves

Type I

Type II

Type III

Age distribution

Population Growth I

Population growth

Exponential curve

Carrying capacity

Sigmoid curve

assumptions

Population Growth II

Four phases of S-curved

lag

exponential

stationery

death

Cycles

Human population growth

Population Regulation I

r-selected vs. K-selected species

r-selected species

small, short lived, early repro, many offspring, little care, cyclic, type III curve

like variable environments

K-selected species

just the opposite

Population Regulation II

Density dependent mechanisms

competition

intraspecific

interspecific

predation

parasitism

Density independent mechanisms

abiotic factors

Community Structure

Composed of populations in area

Habitats

Niches

Competitive Exclusion Principle

Three possibilities

Succession

Definition

Primary succession

Secondary succession

Aquatic succession

Relation to r and K species

Energy Flow

Trophic levels

Food chains

Food webs

Pyramids

Why a pyramid?

Biogeochemical Cycles

Introduction

Reservoirs

Gaseous vs. Sedimentary cycles

Hydrologic cycle

Carbon cycle

Nitrogen cycle

Climatology

Climate vs. weather

Seasons

Differential heating

Winds

Creation of climate

Ocean currents

Biomes I

Created by differences of:

climate

soil

topography

latitude

altitude

Terrestrial vs. aquatic

Biomes II

Terrestrial

Tundra

Taiga

Forests

Grasslands

Deserts

Biomes III

Aquatic

Marine

estruary, tide pool, seashore, open ocean, coral reef

Freshwater

pond, lake, swamp, bog, rivers

Human Impact

Atmosphere

Hydrosphere

Lithosphere

 

BOTANY

Introduction

Plant Kingdom

Eukaryotic

Multicellular

Photosynthesis

Plant Anatomy

Plant Physiology

Plant Taxonomy

PLANT ANATOMY

Tissues

Know Table 15.1 pg. 310

Meristematic Tissues

Apical

Lateral

Permanent Tissues

Surface

Epidermis

Peridermis

Ground

Parenchyma

Collenchyma

Sclerenchyma

Vascular

Xylem

Phloem

Plant Organs

Roots

Stems

Leaves

Reproductive Organs

Plant Organ Systems

Shoot

Root

Soil

Soil Formation
Time

Parent Material

Climate

Biological Activities

Topography

Creates Soil Profile

Soil Components

Organic Matter

Inorganic Matter

Pore Space

Soil Water

Gravitational

Capillary

Hygroscopic

Bound

Soil Minerals

Essential

Macronutrients

Micronutrients

Non-essential

Roots

Longitudinal Section
Root Cap

Zone of Cell Division

Zone of Cell Elongation

Zone of Cell Maturation

Cross Section

Epidermis

Cortex

Endodermis

Pericycle

Phloem

Xylem

Monocot vs Dicot

Stems

Functions

External Morphology

Buds

Arrangement

Position

Types

Node vs Internode

Monocot Cross-section

Herbaceous Dicot Cross-section

Woody Dicot Cross-section

Leaves

Functions

External Morphology

Parts

Arrangements

Types

Venation

Dicot Cross-section

Monocot Cross-section

Changes in Leaves

Color

Fall

 

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

Water Movement

TATC Theory: Transpiration-Adhesion-Tension-Cohesion Theory

Requires a continuous pipe

Requires a continual column of water

Adhesion, Tension, Cohesion

Requires a driving force

Transpiration, Osmosis, Imbibition

Growth

Controlled By?

Primary Meristem

Protoderm

Ground Meristem

Procambium

Apical Growth

Lateral Growth

Hormones I

Introduction: Table 23.1 pg. 487

Auxins

IAA- Indoleacetic Acid

Gibberellins

Cytokinins

Abscisic Acid

Ethylene

Growth Movements

Internal Stimuli

Spiraling

Nodding

Twining

Growth Movements

External Stimuli

Phototropism

Geotropism

Hydrotropism

Thigmotropism

Chemotropism

Thermotropism

Turgor Movements

Sleep Movements

Contact Movements

Taxes

Photoperiodism

Phytochrome

Florigen

Control of Flowering

Types of cycles

Short-day Plants

Long-day Plants

Day-neutral Plants

Taxonomy

Alternation of Generations

Aquatic to Terrestrial Adaptions

Bryophytes- non-vascular, seedless

Tracheophytes

Vascular, seedless

Vascular, seed

Bryophytes

Division Chlorophyta??

Division Hepatophyta: Liverworts

Division Anthocerophyta: Hornworts

Division Psiliophyta: Mosses

Tracheophytes, seedless

Division Psilophyta: Psilopsids

Division Lycophyta: Club mosses

Division Sphenophyta: Horsetails

Division Pterophyta: Ferns

Tracheophytes, seed

Division Coniferophyta: Conifers

Division Cycadophyta: Cycads

Division Ginkophyta: Ginkos

Division Anthophyta: Flowering Plants

Class Monocotyledones: Monocots

Class Dicotyledones: Dicots