Dr. K's Classes:

BIOL 320 Ecology

 
 

 

 

SYLLABUS

 

 AZUSA PACIFIC UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY

FALL 2000

 

APU MISSION STATEMENT:

Mission and Purpose Statement: Azusa Pacific University exists as an evangelical; Christian community of discipleship and scholarship to advance the work of God in the world through liberal arts and professional programs of higher education that encourage students to develop a Christian perspective on truth.

 

DEPARTMENT MISSION STATEMENT:

The Department of Biology and Chemistry exists to serve God through the integration of a Christian perspective into the disciplines of biology and chemistry and the preparation of Christian men and women to assume leadership roles in these sciences.

 

COURSE: BIOL-320 Ecology

 

INSTRUCTOR INFO: Dr. Scott S. Kinnes

Office: W-08 Ext.: 3362

E-Mail: skinnes@apu.edu

Website: www.apu.edu/~skinnes

Real Office Hours: Tues. 8:30 am &endash; 9:30 am/ Thurs. 2:00pm - 3:00pm

Virtual Office Hours: TBA

(Other office hours by appointment)

 

COURSE CONTENT: This course provides an understanding of the relationship of plants and animals to their environment with particular consideration given to distribution, communities, and population analysis. Meets general studies upper-division writing intensive course requirement. Prerequisite: Biology 112

 

COURSE OBJECTIVE: To develop an understanding of the history, philosophy and basic principles underlying ecology and to apply these to current environmental problems through development of a Christian stewardship ecology perspective.

 

REQUIRED READING: Smith & Smith.1998. Elements of Ecology. Benjamin Cummings

McMillian, 1997. Writing Papers in the Biological Sciences. Bedford

Books (or similar text).

Meir, E. 1996. EcoBeaker 1.0: Ecological Simulation Program.

Sinauer Associates, Inc. (Provided)

Assigned reading as announced

 

SUPPLEMENTAL

READING: See supplemental reading list on website:

http://home.apu.edu/~skinnes/k12books.htm

COURSE REQUIREMENTS:

Grading scale:

'A' = 100-92

'A-' = 91.9-90

'B+' = 89.9-88

'B' = 87.9-82

'B-' = 81.9-80

'C+' = 79.9-78

'C' = 77.9-72

'C-' = 71.9-70

` 'D+' = 69.9-68

'D' = 67.9-62

'D-' = 61.9-60

'F' = 59.9-0

 

Summary

40% Lecture exams -3 exams

15% Final exam

15% Ecology Paper

10% Lab Notebook

15% Environmental Factor Experiment/Report

5% Lecture contributions

 

No student will receive a "C" or better course grade without achieving at least a 70% average on the three lecture exams, the final exam and the two major writing requirements--Ecology paper and Environmental Factor Report. The other requirements cannot increase an exam/paper average of less than 70%.

 

COURSE PHILOSOPHY

 

This course is designed to teach you several things. In no particular order they are: ecology, how to survive life after APU, and how to integrate your Christian faith with virtually everything you do. Granted, that may seem like a big statement, so let me explain what I mean.

 

ECOLOGY: Hopefully, since this is a course entitled "Ecology" you will learn something about that subject through taking this course! This will be done through the lectures, the labs, the quizzes and exams and the papers. I assure you that everything we cover will be of value to you and you can verify this with some of my previous students. This aspect of the course is to be a two-way street and will require work on your part that goes beyond the tests and papers. You will be expected to read the material prior to lecture or lab and to review those sections which you still do not understand after class. I stand ready, willing and able to help you through any difficulties that you may encounter but only after you have at least made an effort to understand it on your own.

 

LIFE AFTER APU: More importantly, perhaps, this course, like college in general, is designed to teach you how to survive after college. This includes life in graduate school, whatever job you may get and life in general.

 

1. Tests: Tests will always include at least one essay question in which you will be required to put

down in correct form a paragraph that will demonstrate your knowledge of the subject under discussion. If you omit important information or do not put the answer down in an essay format, you will lose points. Often, however, the questions will be short answers (usually lists of some type, often with short elaborations) or diagrams of something we have discussed and there will always be a vocabulary question with a list of important words for which you must furnish a short sentence type answer that completely defines the words as we discussed them. Occasionally matching and/or multiple choice questions may appear.

 

2. Attendance:

The first three lecture absences will be ignored. After that, however, each absence will lower your final grade by four points. In lab, any unexcused absence will result in a drop of 10 points in your final lab grade. You are also responsible for attending the entire lab so do not make plans to leave early.

 

The lab component is an integral portion of this science course experience and the nature general studies requirement. Therefore any student missing two labs for unexcused reasons or a combination of three labs for any reason, excused or unexcused, will automatically receive an "F" in the course.

 

It is your responsibility to explain your absences and to obtain all information presented during your absence. Excused absences include illnesses verified by a doctor's note, occasional absence due to extra-curricular activities and a few others as determined by me. An attendance sheet will be passed around during class for you to sign your name if you are present. Anyone caught signing another person's name will receive an "F" for the course.

 

3. Tardies: Three tardies will constitute an unexcused absence. If you are tardy be sure to see me after class to be sure that you are not counted absent. Failure to do so by the end of the period will result in an unexcused absence!!

 

4. Make-up Exams: Make-up exams will be given only in very special circumstances such as illness, verified by a doctor. All make-up tests will be given at the end of the semester on the last Monday of the week prior to exams. It is your responsibility to make arrangements with me to take

the test on that day. If you fail to do so, you will get a zero for that grade. No early tests will be

given.

 

5. Late Papers, etc.: NO late papers, projects, etc. will be accepted. The material is due during that day's lecture or lab period, depending on what it relates to, and not just prior to midnight of that day! If a rough draft is required and is not turned in, your final draft will not be accepted.

 

6. Timed Tests: You will have a certain amount of time to take each test and at the end of that time all papers will be collected. It is, therefore, very important that you are not late on test days. If you have a disability of some type that prevents you from handling material at a normal rate, then please see me so that special arrangements can be made.

 

7. Cheating: If you are caught cheating on a test/paper, you will receive a zero for that test/paper. If you are caught cheating on a second test/paper, you will receive an "F" in the course. All cases of cheating will be reported to the Dean of Students. If you are suspected of cheating, I reserve the right to have you take another test on that material. If you are in doubt of what constitutes cheating, please refer to the University's Student Handbook.

 

8. Disability Statement: Any student in this course who has a disability that might prevent him or her from full demonstrating his or her abilities should meet with an advisor in the Learning Enrichment Center as soon as possible to initiate disability verification and discuss accommodations that may be necessary to ensure your full participation in the successful completion of course requirements.

 

 

TENTATIVE LECTURE SCHEDULE

 

DATE / DAY TOPIC READINGS

Sept. 06 W Course Introduction

08 F Introduction to Ecology Chap. 1&2

 

11 M Why Ecology ? TBA

13 W Ecology Through History TBA

15 F Stewardship Ecology TBA

 

18 M Stewardship Ecology TBA

20 W Ecosystem Structure TBA

22 F Biotic to Abiotic Chap. 3

 

25 M Climate Chap. 4

27 W Temperature, Moisture Chap. 6, 7

29 F Light, Fire Chap. 5, 10

 

Oct. 02 M Soil Chap. 10

04 W Population Structure Chap. 11, 12

06 F TEST 1

09 M Population Growth Chap. 13

11 W Population Regulation Chap. 14

13 F Population Competition Chap. 15

16 M Predation Chap. 16

18 W Parasitism and Mutualism Chap. 17

20 F VACATION DAY

 

23 M Ecology of Disease Chap. TBA

25 W Population, Genetics Chap. 19

27 F Speciation Chap. 19

 

30 M Community Structure Chap.20

Nov. 01 W Community Dynamics Chap. 21

03 F TEST 2

 

06 M Community Dynamics Chap.21

08 W Sucession Chap. 21

10 F Sucession Chap. 22

LAST DAY TO WITHDRAW FROM CLASS

 

13 M Trophic Structure Chap. 23

15 W Trophic Structure Chap. 24 17 F Carbon & Nitrogen Cycles Chap.25

20 M Phosphorous and Sulfur Cycles Chap. 25

22 W Global Environmental Change Chap. 26

24 F THANKSGIVING VACATION

27 M Air Pollution TBA

29 W Water Pollution TBA

Dec. 01 F Water Pollution TBA

04 M Land Pollution TBA

06 W Land Pollution TBA

08 F TEST 3

 

Wednesday, Dec. 13 - 7:30 am -9:30 am - FINAL

 

TENTATIVE

LAB SCHEDULE**

 

 

DATE EVENT READINGS

 

Sept. 11 Scientific Writing and Research Techniques Pechenik 18 Adaptations Field Trip

25 Statistics Sampling and Technology

 

Oct. 03* Tuesday lab to Tide Pools Chap. 36

09 Ocean Field Trip Chap. 35

16 Population Growth

23 Estuary Field Trip Chap. 37

30 Environmental Effects

 

Nov. 06 Stream Field Trip Chap. 34

13 Lake Field trip Chap. 32

20 Desert Field trip Chap. 28

27 Forest Field trip Chap. 30

 

Dec.**04 Urban Ecology

06 Lab notebook due by Noon

 

NOTE: *Special Tuesday lab

**Subject to change should weather, etc. delay any field trips

 

LAB NOTEBOOK

 

PURPOSE: To encourage student attention and learning during in-house and field labs.

 

OBJECTIVE: To create a notebook chronicling all ecology lab work including background, material, data, and answers to relevant questions.

 

REQUIREMENT: Notebook is to contain the following:

1. Data from all in-house labs

2. Data from all field labs, yours and colleagues

3. One to two page introductions to each ecosystem visited with bibliographies

4. Answers to questions posed by handouts or Professor.

GRADING: Based upon on time completion and accuracy.

 

DUE DATES:

Data from Labs: One week after experiment is completed

Data from Field Trips: One week after field trip

Ecosystem Introduction: Day of field trip to that ecosystem

Answers to Questions: One week after lab is completed

Completed Notebook: December 6 by noon.

 

All material is due at the beginning of lab. Any student without material at that time, regardless of excuse, will receive a "0".

 

 

LECTURE CONTRIBUTIONS

 

PURPOSE: To encourage independent thought and research on controversial but important topics in lecture.

 

OBJECTIVE: To research, study, and develop ideas on ecological topics that are unusual, ambiguous and open to question/argument.

 

REQUIREMENT: For three areas discussed in lecture, students are to independently study the topics, research the facts, and be ready to present their findings, understandings and opinions on the topics during lecture. Students must be prepared to do so orally but must also hand-in written evidence of process, including bibliographical information used.

GRADING: Based upon on time completion, relevancy, contribution to the discussion and originality.

 

DUE DATES:

Sept. 15 Stewardship Ecology

Oct. 23 Ecology of Diseases

Nov. 22 Pollution

ECOLOGY PAPER

 

PURPOSE: To allow the student to apply the principles of ecology to areas of interest to them beyond the traditional boundaries of the field.

 

 

OBJECTIVE: To write a paper on a scientific topic with distinctly ecological connections and

foundations. Topics may not deal with traditional topics of the course. However, applying those principles to specific microorganisms in water and air, specific microorganismic diseases, specific environmental pollutants, certain aspects of "social" or "human" ecology, etc. is permissible.

 

 

REQUIREMENTS:

 

8-9 pages, not counting bibliography, that are numbered

typed on computer by the student author

double spaced

complete bibliography

 

GRADING:

 

college-level presentation: spelling 10 pts.

grammar 10 pts.

neatness/typos 10 pts.

citations/bibliography 10 pts.

content: 40 pts.

application of ecological principles to topic: 20 pts.

 

timeliness: If no rough draft is turned in, the final draft will not be accepted. If the

rough draft is late, five points will be subtracted per day from final grade on paper. No late final papers will be accepted.

 

o length: 5 points will be subtracted for each portion of a page over or under the stated

length.

 

DUE DATES:

 

Topic selection: Sept.18

Rough Draft: Oct. 09

Paper: Nov. 06

 

NOTE: All critiquing of rough draft will be done on tape. Students must turn in a clean, blank tape in either standard or microcassette size with paper. Be sure to label it with your name. Number all pages.

 

 

 

 

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR REPORT

 

PURPOSE: To allow the student to concentrate on one specific topic throughout

the lab experience in order to see the relations between that factor and aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. To train students in the use of multimedia techniques.

 

OBJECTIVE: To measure the environmental factor at all field trip sites and to develop an extensive knowledge of that environmental factor.

 

REQUIREMENT:

Field Work: Measurement, wherever applicable, of selected factor on each field trip.

 

Report: Scientific paper reporting background material, techniques employed, results

and their implications. The report must be done totally on the Macintosh computer and must include graphs, statistics, video and still images in the paper. The paper must be at least 10 pages, not including the bibliography. It can be longer.

 

GRADING:

College level presentation: Spelling: 10 pts.

Grammar: 10 pts.

Neatness, typos: 10 pts.

 

Effective use of multimedia: 10 pts.

 

Content of science report: Introduction: 20 pts.

Materials/methods: 10 pts.

Results: 10 pts.

Conclusions : 10 pts.

Citations, Biblio. 10 pts.

 

Timelines See "Ecology Paper" Information

 

o Length: 5 points will be subtracted for each portion of a page under the stated

length.

 

 

DUE DATES:

Factor selected: Sept. 18 First come, first selected

(All arrangements for finding and/or ordering

supplies/equipment needed must be made at

this time)

Intro. and M/M Draft: Oct. 24

Report: Dec. 11

NOTE: All critiquing of rough draft will be done on tape. Students must turn in a clean, blank tape in either standard or microcassette size with paper. Be sure to label it with your name. Number all pages.

 

 

 

 

 LECTURE NOTES

 

INTRO TO ECOLOGY:

Definition

Ecology = oikos + logy

Oikos = the family house

Logy = study of

Ecology = study of the family house or study of relationship of organisms to their environment

Environment

Environment = abiotics and biotics

Abiotics

Biotics

Ecosystem is basic unit of nature composed of these two

Organization

Ecosystem

Community

Population

Individual

Abiotics

Requirements

Junior/Senior level

True interdisciplinary science

Involves: anatomy, physiology, botany, zoology, microbiology, cell and molec, genetics, general chemistry, organic chemistry, biochemistry, physics, etc.

Basics

Organisms interact with their environment

Organisms are designed/adapted for their environment

Environments are fairly narrow for any given organism

Internal environment must be fairly constant = homeostasis

Ability to live in different environments = organismic variation

Habitat

Niche

 

WHY ECOLOGY?

7 Ancient Divisions of Civilization

Air

Water

Earth

Fire

Plants

Animals

Humans

7 Degradations of Nature

Global toxification

Land conversions/habitat destruction

Land degradation

Resource conversion/waste production

Species extinction

Alteration of planetary exchange

Human/cultural degradation

7 Stumbling Blocks to Involvement

This world is not our home

Aligns us with

Leads to world government

Need to support abortion

Don't want to be an alarmist/extremist

Bible says we have dominion

People are more important than the environment

Plan for Responding Correctly

Awareness

Appreciation

Stewardship

 

ECOLOGY THROUGH HISTORY

 

Hebrew I

God is creator: Gen. 1:1,2; John 1:3

It was created good: Gen. 1:31

Human's dominion was part of goodness: Gen. 1:28; 2:15

Due to man's fall, nature came under curse: Gen. 3:17; Rom. 8:20-22

God is still at work sustaining creation: Col. 1:16,17; Heb. 1:3

Nature still serves in general revelation: Rom. 1:20; Ps. 19:1-6

Land is:

promise to people

limited

divided according to tribes: Joshua 13

worthy of a rest: Lev. 25:8-17, 2-5

Land is for sharing with poor: Lev. 19:9-10; Deut. 24:19-22

Possession of land is by God's grace

Obedience to God needed to maintain land: Lev. 26:3-5; Lev. 25:18-19

Greek

Plato

Aristotle

Stoics

Epicureans

Medieval I

16th and 17th century: "Dark Ages" or "Middle Ages" not quite true

Combination of Greek and Christian thought

No desire to study or rearrange nature changed to idea that they could order and change nature

However, split existed between thinkers and doers

Exceptions:

Benedictine monks

Franciscan monks

Land ideas as an example

Industrial/Scientific Revolution I

Began in late 1600's, primarily in astronomy

Copernicus

Kepler

Galileo

Newton

Industrial/Scientific Revolution II

Philosophers picked up on this

Descartes

Francis Bacon

Locke

New World

Puritans

Romanticism

Utilitarianism

New Age

Extremists

Christians

Stewardship Ecology I

Personal/Infinite God

Two Adams: I Cor. 15:21-22; Rom. 5:12-21

Return to Hebrew ideas:

God created it

God owns it

God created it good

Part of goodness is human's involvement

Stewardship Ecology II

Human's involvement:

Gen. 1:28 = rule and subdue

Gen. 2:15 = keep and till

Man's fall and sin affect all

Universe still glorifies and leads to God

God still sustains it and loves it

Lord blesses and keeps us and land

Stewardship Ecology III

Basic concept of Steward

Examples of Stewards

Parables about Stewards

Stewards of ???

Stewardship Ecology IV

Specific commands are given

give land and animals rest

allow things to multiply

do not completely occupy land

spare no expense to save animals

do not pollute

share with poor

If we do not...

 

ABIOTIC TO BIOTIC

 

CYCLES

Biogeochemical

Carbon based

Carbon Cycle

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Basic Equation

C3 Process

C4 Process

CAM Process

RESPIRATION

Basic Equation

Decomposition

 

CLIMATE

ATMOSPHERE

Components

Structure

CLIMATE BASICS

Definitions

Differential Heating

Adiabatic Rate

Relative Humidity

GLOBAL WINDS

Formation

Patterns

Effects on climate

Effects on currents

LOCAL WINDS

Microclimates

Valley/Mountain

Water/Land

Chinook

Santa Anna

 

ABIOTIC FACTORS

 

TEMPERATURE: INTRO

Created by:

differential heating

atmospheric conditions

seasons

local conditions

Part of climate

Closely tied to moisture

TEMPERATURE: INTRO II

Affects:

protein structure

protein enzyme action

chemical actions

Cardinal range

TEMPERATURE: KINDS OF ORGANISMS

Poiliotherms: ectothermy

Homeotherms: endothermy

Heterotherms

TEMPERATURE: ADAPTATIONS

Plants

Animals

MOISTURE: INTRO

Part of climate

Closely related to temperature

Relative humidity

MOISTURE: WATER PROPERTIES

Based on structure

Specific heat

Latent heat

Viscosity

Surface tension

Osmosis

MOISTURE: WATER LOCATION

Ocean: 97.2%

Ice: 2.15%

Groundwater: .6%

Surface water: .05%

MOISTURE: HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

Precipitation

Infiltration

Interception

Seepage

Runoff

Evaporation

Transpiration

MOISTURE: FRESHWATER

Marine

Standing

Running

Groundwater

MOISTURE: GROUNDWATER

Zone of Saturation

Zone of Aeration

Water Table

Aquifer

Springs

Artesian wells

MOISTURE: SOIL WATER

Gravitational water

Capillary water

Hygroscopic water

Bound water

Field capacity

Wilting point

MOISTURE: ADAPTATIONS

Plant

Animal

LIGHT: INTRO

Solar radiation:

Electromagnetic spectrum

Visible light spectrum

Reduced by:

location

atmosphere

vegetation

local factors

LIGHT: PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Light Compensation Point

Light Saturation Point

Photoinhibition

Shade vs. sun plants

Shade-intolerant vs. shade-tolerant

LIGHT: PLANT ADAPTATIONS

Reduced rubisco concentrations

Increased chlorophyll concentrations

Lower respiration rate

Leaf morphology

Leaf physiology

LIGHT: PERIODICITY

Circadian rhythms: light regulated

Regulated by:

animals: melatonin

plants: phytochrome

Critical day-length

Phenology: light and temperature regulated

FIRE: INTRO

Historically

Natural

Native Americans

Pre-Smokey

Smokey

Post-Smokey

FIRE: REQUIREMENTS

Fuel

Oxygen

Dry weather

Ignition Source

FIRE: EFFECTS

Kills

Reduces competition

Reduces litter

Recycles

Exposes soil

Stimulates seed germination

FIRE: RELATED ECOSYSTEMS

Everglades

Long-leaf pine

Redwoods

 

SOIL

 

INTRODUCTION

Definition

Importance

Taxonomy

FORMATION

Time

Parent Material

Minerals

Rocks

Climate

Biotic Activity

Topography

SOIL HORIZONS

Soil Profile

Soil Horizons

Typical Profiles

O

A

E

B

C

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS

Color

Texture

Structure

Depth

Moisture

Cation Exchange Capacity

SOIL ORDER

Entisol

Vertisol

Inceptisol

Aridisol

Mollisol

Spodosol

Alfisol

Ultisol

Oxisol

Histosol

Andisol

LIFE IN THE SOIL

Microenvironments

All other concepts apply

Microscopic

Macroscopic

 

POPULATION ECOLOGY

 

INTRODUCTION

Definition

Basic unit of ecological studies

Function almost like a single entity

STRUCTURE

Density

Distribution/Dispersion

Age structure

POPULATION GROWTH I

Natality

Mortality

Probability of Survival

Life expectancy

Life Tables

Survivorship curves

POPULATION GROWTH II

Typical Growth Curve

Carrying Capacity = K

Biotic Potential = r

Application to human populations

Extinction

POPULATION TYPES

K- selected

r-selected

POPULATION REGULATION

Population cycles

Density Dependent

Density Independent

POPULATION REGULATION: DENSITY DEPENDENT

Competition

Resources

Behavior

COMPETITION: INTRO

Definition

Intraspecific

Interspecific

Symbiotic relations

COMPETITION: LOTKA-VOLTERRA MODEL

Introduction

Four outcomes predicted

Species 1 increases, species 2 decreases

Species 1 decreases, species 1 increases

Each species inhibits other more than it inhibits itself

Each species inhibits itself more than it inhibits other

Laboratory support

Competitive Exclusion Principle

Coexistence

Niche:

fundamental

realized

 

PREDATION

 

INTRODUCTION

Definition

Broader than usually defined

Mathematical Model:

Lotka-Volterra Model

Two components:

Predator

Prey

Population mechanism

TWO PREDATOR RESPONSES

Functional: Number of prey taken varies with density of prey

3 different types

Numerical: Number of predators increases as number of prey increases

PREDATOR COMPONENT I

Responses just discussed

Age, size, strength

Hunting ability

Hunting method: benefit/energy expended

pursue

stalk

ambush

PREDATOR COMPONENT II

Search Image

Alternate Prey

Hunger level vs time spent

PREY COMPONENT I

Coevolution occurs

Prey Risk:

prey density

prey age, size, speed, strength

availability of food, cover

degree of movement

Prey Defenses:

speed and agility

chemical secretions

coloration

mimicry

reproduction timing

behavior

PARASITOIDISM

Definition

Examples

CANNIBALISM

Intraspecific Predation

Terrestrial: primarily herbivores

Aquatic: primarily carnivores

Associated with:

over crowding

stress

vulnerable individuals

HERBIVORY I

Definition

Types:

grazing

browsing

frugivory

seed predation

pollination

leaf mining

boring

root eating

sap sucking

gall formation

HERBIVORY II

Plant defenses:

food content

chemical defense:

quantitative inhibitors

qualitative inhibitors

thorns, spines

FORAGING

Definition

Applicable to many aspects of predation

Four rules:

concentrate on most productive area

stay there until it reaches average levels

leave patch at that point

ignore areas of low productivity

 

SYMBIOSIS

 

DEFINITIONS

Symbiosis

Mutualism

Commensalism

Parasitism

Allelopathy

PARASITISM I: Intro

Components

Host

Parasite

Environment

Disease Relationship

Component responses

Ecological principles apply

PARASITISM II: Types

Microparasites

Macroparasites

Ectoparasites

Endoparasites

Social parasites

PARASITISM III: Transmission

Definition

Direct: Host - Host

Indirect: Host - ? - Host

Vectors

Vehicles, fomites

PARASITISM IV: Examples

Lyme Disease

Brainworm

Blood Fluke

Malaria

MUTUALISM I: Intro

Origins

Ultimate example: prokaryotes to eukaryotes

Symbiotic vs nonsymbiotic

Obligate vs facultative

MUTUALISM II: Examples

Lichens

mycorrhizae

pollinators

seed dispersal

intestinal flora

grasses and fungi

truffles and burrowers

pollination

ants and fungus

ants and Acacia

 

 EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY

 

EVOLUTION OF ATMOSPHERE?

Formation of planet?

Reducing Atmosphere?

Oxidizing Atmposphere!

Gaia Hypothesis?

GENETIC REVIEW

Population

Deme

Genes

Alleles

Homozygous/Heterozygous

Genotype/Phenotype

BASICS OF EVOLUTION

Microevolution vs macroevolution

Natural Variation

Mutations

Fitness

Natural Selection

HARDY-WEINBERG LAW

Assumptions:

mating is random

mutations do not occur

population is large

no natural selection

no migrations

1 = p2 + 2pq + q2

MICROEVOLUTION

H-W assumptions rarely hold true:

mating is not random

mutations do occur

populations are small

natural selection does occur

migrations do occur

Environment acts upon variation

Fittest survive

Population changes

NATURAL SELECTION

Stabilizing

Directional

Disruptive

Speciation may occur??

SPECIATION I

Dificult to define a species

Traditional: morphological species

Current: biological or ecological species

Variations:

sympatric

sibling

allopatric

Variations

Clines

Ecotypes

Geographic isolates

Allopatric/Geographic Speciation

Sympatric Speciation

Abrupt Speciation

ISOLATING MECHANISMS

Geographical

Ecological

Temporal

Behavioral

Mechanical

OUTCOMES

Adaptive Radiation

Coevolution

Divergent

Convergent

 

COMMUNITIES

INTRODUCTION

Definition

Guilds

Association

Autotrophic Communities

Heterotrophic Communities

DOMINANCE I

Definition

Factors affecting it

Dominants

Codominants

Subdominants

DOMINANCE II: Measuring

Dominance

Relative Dominance

Relative Density

Frequency

Relative Frequency

Importance Value

Simpson's Index

DIVERSITY

Definition

Relative Abundance

Species Diversity

Simpson's Diversity Index

STRUCTURE I

Definition

Based on vegetation: Raunkiaer's Life Form

Phanerophytes

Chamaephytes

Hemicryptophytes

Cryptophytes

Therophytes

Epiphytes

STRUCTURE II: Vertical

Definition

Terrestrial:

herb

shrub

understory

canopy

STRUCTURE III: Vertical

Aquatic:

epilimnion

metalimnion

thermocline

hypolimnion

trophogenic zone

tropholytic zone

STRUCTURE IV: Horizontal

Definition

Distribution

Gaps

Ecotones

DYNAMICS I: Intro

Communities are not static

Change both spatially and temporally

Spatial = zonation

Temporal = succession

DYNAMICS II: Zonation

Definition

Edge

inherent

induced

Ecotones

Edge Effect

DYNAMICS III: Zonation

Examples:

Salt Marsh

Sea Shore

Forest-meadow

Forest-lake

DYNAMICS IV: Succession

Definition

Types:

Primary

Secondary

Hydrosere

Sere

Seral Stage

Climax community

DYNAMICS V: Succession

Basic Underlying Principle

Examples:

Primary: brief

Secondary: Old Field

Hydrosere: Mirror Lake

Fire maintained: Subclimax

Discrete vs Continuum

Paleoecology

 

PRODUCTION AND TROPHIC STRUCTUR

 

PRODUCTION: Ecosystem Review

Ecosystem

Components

abiotics

producers

consumers

decomposers

PRODUCTION: Energy Review

Energy types

potential

kinetic

Thermodynamics

First Law

exothermic

endothermic

Second Law

entropy

PRODUCTION: Primary Productivity I

Primary production

Primary productivity

gross

net

Standing Crop Biomass

PRODUCTION: Primary Productivity II

Terrestrial ecosystems

ranking

temperature affect

moisture affect

Aquatic ecosystems

ranking

nutrient affect

temperature affect

Time effect

PRODUCTION: Secondary Productivity

Secondary production

Secondary productivity

Efficiencies:

terms

equations

Affected by:

primary production

genetics

PRODUCTION: Decomposer Productivity

Needs dead organic matter

Temperature effect

Moisture effect

TROPHIC STRUCTURE: Introduction

Definition

Food chain

Food web

Flows and cycles

TROPHIC STRUCTURE: Components

Trophic levels

First-level: Producers

Second-level: Primary consumers

omnivores

carnivores

Third-level: Secondary consumers

Above: Tertiary....Top consumers

TROPHIC STRUCTURE: Decomposers

All organisms actually do this

Scavengers

Saprotrophs

True Decomposers

microscopic: fungi and bacteria

macroscopic: springtails, mites, millipedes, slugs, earthworms, insect larvae, etc..

microbivores

TROPHIC STRUCTURE: Types of Food Chains

Grazing

Producers

Herbivores

Carnivores

Detrital

Detritus

Decomposer Herbivores

Carnivores

TROPHIC STRUCTURE: Energy Flow I

Introduction

Links grazing and detrital chains

Difficult to measure in most systems

Remember pg. 325, 23.1

TROPHIC STRUCTURE: Efficiencies

Assimilation

Growth

Production

Consumption

Comparisons

TROPHIC STRUCTURE: Energy Pyramids

Definition

Biomass in weight, Numbers of organisms, etc...

Why pyramid shape?

Decomposers do not fit in well to standard pyramid

TROPHIC STRUCTURE: Food Webs

More realistic

More complex

More diverse

More stable

 

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES

 

INTRODUCTION

Nutrient flow: energy and material

Biogeochemical cycle

Reservoir

Two types:

gaseous

sedimentary

Driven by hydrologic cycle

CARBON CYCLE

Closely tied to all due to connection with life

Reservoirs:

atmosphere

ocean

biomass

Cycle

Human impact

NITROGEN CYCLE I

Major cycle

Nitrogen is one of the most limiting elements in terrestrial systems

Microbes highly involved

Reservoir:

atmosphere

NITROGEN CYCLE II

Cycle

Processes:

nitrogen fixation

ammonification

nitrification

denitrification

Human impact

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

Importance

Reservoir

rocks

Cycle

Human impact

SULFUR CYCLE

Importance

Reservoir

rocks

Cycle

Human impact

 

ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION

 

INTRODUCTION

Examination of how humans impact the environment

Remember back to the 7 Degradations

Primarily all keyed to ???

Break it down into:

Global environmental change

Air Pollution

Water Pollution

Land Pollution

GLOBAL CHANGE I

Role of carbon dioxide in atmosphere

Levels of carbon dioxide in atmosphere

How measured

Historical

Current

Future

Carbon dioxide compartments

Role of Oceans

Role of Plants

Other greenhouse gases

Possible effects

climate change

species movement

increased water level

Solutions??

AIR POLLUTION: Basics

Types of pollutants

Sources

Sinks

SMOG

Carbon

Sulfur

Nitrogen

Ozone

Solutions??

AIR POLLUTION: Acid Precipitation

Normal rain

Pollutants

SOx

NOx

Deposition

Effects

terrestrial systems

aquatic systems

human systems

Solutions??

AIR POLLUTION: Ozone Depletion

Good ozone

Ozone depleting gases

Mechanism

Impact

Solutions??

WATER POLLUTION: Review

Hydrologic Cycle

Water Location

Ocean

Ice

Groundwater

Surface Water

WATER POLLUTION I

Sources

Atmosphere

Direct dumping

Runoff

Percolation

WATER POLLUTION II

Types

Basic chemicals

Chlorinated hydrocarbons

Polychlorinated biphenyls

Oil

Heavy Metals

Biologics

Groundwater depletion

Ocean resource depletion

LAND POLLUTION

Waste Management

Land Degradation

Desertification

Deforestation

Urbanization

Loss of Biodiversity

 

 

FIELD TRIP PHOTOS