Azusa Pacific University 
School of Education and Behavioral Studies 
901 East Alosta Avenue, P.O. Box 7000, Azusa, CA 91702
Fall Semester, 1998
Azusa Pacific University is an evangelical Christian community of disciples and scholars
who seek to advance the work of God in the world through academic excellence in liberal arts and professional programs in higher education that encourage students to develop a Christian perspective of truth and life.

Course: CSA563 Counseling : The Helping Relationship
                  4:05-7:05 pm, Darling #401

Instructor:   Dr. Dave McIntire, Professor
                         College Student Affairs and Leadership Studies
                         Azusa Pacific University
                         FAX (626) 815-5484
                         Department Secretary: Marylen Hart
                         Phone: (626) 815-5485

Course Description:

The course is designed to provide an introduction and overview of various theoretical approaches to the helping relationship. Examination of helping techniques (with culturally diverse populations) as applied through advising, cross intervention, and consultation roles.  Behavior development and change as an interpersonal process is addressed.  Practice in role-playing situations involving various helping and human relations skills is included.  An integral focus of the course is the opportunity to integrate and apply an understanding of the theories and techniques to one’s personal and professional life.

Course Objectives:

1. To examine multiple theoretical approaches to counseling and examine their   relevance and applicability in the helping

2. To explore the purpose, process and dynamics of proactive helping and    counseling relationships in college student affairs.

3. To enhance perceptive sensitivity, accurate empathy, and multifaceted human   relations skills relative to the field of college
    student affairs.

4. To begin a process of self-examination and exploration that will lead to    increased awareness of personal values, beliefs,
    attitudes, and issues that  impact the relationship with clients.

5. To develop skills in such basic areas as accurate listening, empathy, probing, defining problem areas, setting goals and
    taking effective action.

6. To assess natural counseling style and identify ways to enhance effectiveness   in current life context.

Basic Texts:
 Egan, Gerard (1994) The Skilled Helper: A Problem-Management Approach to Helping , Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

Egan, Gerard (1994)  Exercises in Helping Skills (5th edition), Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/ Cole Publishing Company.

In Class Activities:

A class in counseling is like learning to swim by reading a book, sooner or later you have to get wet.  Like any other skill, it takes considerable practice to reach a comfortable level of expertise in counseling.  Because the best way of learning counseling is to experience it, some amount of in-class time will be spent in counseling activities.

1. Counseling dyads -  Use primarily the following counseling techniques:   silence, minimal encourager, clarification, paraphrase, questions (open and   closed ended), reflection and summarization, with some (very few) probes, self-  disclosure and confrontation.

2.  Self-Esteem issues - Identity, Connection Competence, Purpose, and   Power.

3. Journal of feelings - You will keep a journal or a log of your feelings and   thoughts for each of the areas covered in class.  This will help you organize   your thoughts and facilitate the experience with the peer counseling partner.

4. Accountability counseling -  Where are you now?
                                                   Where would you like to be?
                                                   What gets in your way?
                                                   Can you see away around the  problem? 
                                                   Do you follow through with choosing the  relevant steps?

Course Requirements:

1.  Informed Contribution: (25 points)
 The hallmarks of an effective graduate class involve (1) punctual  ATTENDANCE, (2) focused   ATTENTION, (3) ready PREPARATION, AND (4) involved PARTICIPATION.  (A short   document summarizing one’s course contribution in each of these four areas is due by the final   deadline date.  A letter grade for each area is also to be included.  Both summaries and letter   grades will be taken into account along with the instructor’s evaluations in determining a    participant’s “contribution” assessment). Due date:  December 15.

2. Journal: (10 points)
 Weekly throughout the semester, students will record their feelings, reactions, and insights in   relation to the topics of the course.  The instructor will also give focus questions for students to   address in their journal entries.  Journals will be handed in two times throughout the semester, as   indicated in the class schedule.  Journals will be graded on thoughtfulness, thoroughness, and   levels of self-exploration and self-disclosure.  Due date:  October 13 and December 1.

3.  Counseling Sessions:  (20 points)
 Students will participate as clients in a minimum of five counseling sessions with a certified   counselor/therapist (or supervised intern).  Students will write summaries of each session,   delineating the skills used by the therapist, the issues addressed in each session, and the   progress made towards resolution of their issues.  A final segment of the session summaries   should include an overall description and critique of the counseling experience.  Due date:    November 24.

4.  Presentation:  (10 points)
 Description and case study  / role play illustration of a specific theoretical approach to the helping   relationship as assigned during the second week of class.  Due date:  As assigned in class.

5.  Service Learning Project:  (5 points)
 Students (in groups of 4-5) will serve a meal together in an area soup kitchen and then write a 3-5   page reaction / reflection paper on impressions, reactions, and observations.  By utilizing the   “helping skills” covered in class students are expected to interact with and truly listen to the   beneficiaries of the soup kitchen.  Due date: November 3.

6.  Examinations:  (20 points)
 Midterm exam due October 20  (10 points)
 Egan, Chapters 1-6
 Final exam due December 15 (10 points)
 Egan, Chapters 7-13 and theories

7.  Reflection Paper:  (10 points)
 Each student will write a short “thought paper” on one of the following questions:

 What is the essence of your philosophy of counseling?

 What are some of your central values and beliefs, and how do you think they will inhibit or facilitate your work as a helper?

 What personal needs do you see as most being met by your work as a helping person?

 What life experiences and personal struggles have you had that you think would have the greatest influence on your ability to counsel others?

 The paper should be 6-8 pages (double-spaced), however, grades are based on quality rather than quantity.  Due date:  September 29

Expectations and Evaluation:

1.  Papers, presentations and projects will be evaluated by the following criteria:
 Organization (coherence, logical and substantive progression of ideas)
 Scholarship (knowledgeable use of relevant literature)
 Comprehension (analysis/synthesis; demonstrated understanding of concepts)
 Mechanics (grammar, spelling, appropriate citation format)
 Delivery (presence with participants, handouts, AV, activities, creativity)

Citations and bibliographic references for all assignments should be in accordance with the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

2.   All assignments are to be completed and submitted according to the course schedule in order to   receive full credit.  Late assignments will be penalized one letter grade per week.

3. Basic proficiency at the graduate level is considered “B” work.  The designation of “A” work is   reserved for exceptional scholarship, depth of comprehension, and quality of reasoning.  Work   which demonstrates minimal proficiency is assigned the grade of “C”.

4.   Each session will be guided by a theme supported by readings.  Class discussions,  role-play,   presentations (individual and/or group), creative projects, and guest speakers will be used to   facilitate the course learning objectives.

5. Class attendance, participation, self-responsibility, engagement, and scholarly attainment are expected.

Criteria for written projects:

Grade level                  Learning level                              Definition and example

C                                  Knowledge and                              Remembering & understanding
                                    comprehension                                an idea or fact in a form similar
                                                                                           to the way it was presented.

C+                                Application                                     Implies comprehension:
                                                                                           applying a fact to a real or
                                                                                           simulated situation: e.g. defining
                                                                                           “value” and identifying 3

B                                    Analysis and                                Analysis involves the breakdown
                                       Synthesis                                     of the material into its parts & perceives
                                                                                          the relationship between the parts.
                                                                                          Synthesis is defined as putting the parts
                                                                                          together to form a whole, combining
                                                                                          information into patterns and structures.

A (range)                       Evaluation                                   Making judgments about the
                                                                                         value of ideas, methods of
                                                                                         materials with rationale for
                                                                                         judgments.  Involves some
                                                                                         combination of all other
                                                                                         behaviors - knowledge,
                                                                                         comprehension, application,
                                                                                         analysis and synthesis.


According to the Graduate Education Faculty Handbook:  “An incomplete is given only under special circumstances and is not to be used simply because students are not able to complete work in the allotted time.  ‘Incompletes’ are initiated by the student well in advance of the end of the semester with the use of the Official Incomplete Form signed by both the student and instructor.”

Course Schedule"  "A Tentative Menu"

September     15         Introductions, Overview of course, Expectations (both students and faculty),     Reception, Syllabus,
                                    Historical overview of counseling, What good is counseling.

                       22        Counseling in college student affairs, Egan’s helping model, Survey of attitudes and values related to
                                   Assignments:  Egan, chapters 1 & 2.  Finish  “Attitude Survey” and bring to class.

                      29         Values in helping relationships:  The counselor as a person and as a professional. Helping clients act:
                                   Accountability & Locus of Control.
                                   Assignments: Egan, chapters 3 & 4.  Exercises, Part 2. Due:  Reflection Paper

October        06         Communication skills in helping (Part 1), Attending and listening,  Theories of  helping/counseling -
                                   Person-centered Therapy (Carl Rogers)  Demonstration of     person-centered approach.
                                   Assignments:  Egan, Chapter 5,  Articles.

                      13         Communication skills in helping (Part II), Empathy, probing, and synthesis. Theories of
                                   helping/counseling - Psychoanalytic Therapy (Freud and Erickson).
                                   Presentation:  Psychoanalytic
                                   Assignments:  Egan, Chapter 6, Articles, Exercises Part 3.
                                   Due:  Journal 1st submittal

                      20         Key process in helping (Part I), Facilitation, challenging, and leverage. Demonstration of
                                   gestalt approach.
                                   Presentation:  Gestalt
                                   Assignments:  Egan, chapters 7, 8,  and  9.  Exercises Part 4.
                                   Due: Midterm examination
                      27         Individual Conferences (scheduled during week - no scheduled class)
                                   Assignments:  Preparation / review for midterm.
November    03         Counseling and the “mission field”.  Guest / panel from Global Vision Week.
                                   Key process in helping (Part II), Developing preferred scenarios, future-centered approach to
                                   helping,goal setting, commitment.
                                  Assignments:  Egan, Chapters 10, 11, 12.  Exercises Part 5.
                                  Due:  Service Learning Project
                    10         Key process in helping (Part III).  Linking scenarios to action and developing action strategies.
                                 Formulating plans and in pursuit of valued outcomes. Theories of helping/counseling - rational-emotive
                                therapy.  Demonstration of RET    approach.
                                Presentation:  Rational Emotive
                                Assignments: Egan, chapters 13 and 14.

                  17         Theories of helping/counseling - Adlerian Therapy (Adler/Dreikurs)
                               Presentation:  Carl Jung
                               Assignments: Articles

                  24         Theories of helping/counseling - Behavior Therapy (Shinner, Bandura, Lazarus) and Transactional
                               Analysis (Berne & Goulding).
                               Presentation: Transactional Analysis
                               Assignments:  Articles
                               Due:  Counseling Sessions Paper

December01         Connection of theory  to practice.  Application of micro-counseling skills to real life people and 
                              Soup kitchen volunteer assistance as class project.
                              Due:  Journal 2nd submittal

                 08         Theories of helping/counseling - Reality Therapy (Glasser). Ethical issues in counseling.  An integrative
                              approach. Christian counseling.
                              Presentation:  Reality Therapy
                              Assignments:  Articles
                15         Counseling culturally diverse populations, The psychology of life transitions,  and helping through
                             interpersonal relationships.  Synthesis, review and celebration !
                             Due:  Informed Contribution Assessment
                             Due:  Final examination


course syllabi